THE ACM COMPUTING CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
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A. General Literature
A.0 GENERAL
Biographies/autobiographies
Conference proceedings
General literary works (e.g., fiction, plays)
A.1 INTRODUCTORY AND SURVEY
A.2 REFERENCE (e.g., dictionaries, encyclopedias, glossaries)
A.m MISCELLANEOUS
B. Hardware
B.0 GENERAL
B.1 CONTROL STRUCTURES AND MICROPROGRAMMING (D.3.2)
B.1.0 General
B.1.1 Control Design Styles
Hardwired control
Microprogrammed logic arrays
Writable control store
B.1.2 Control Structure Performance Analysis and Design Aids
Automatic synthesis
Formal models
Simulation
B.1.3 Control Structure Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
Diagnostics
Error-checking
Redundant checking
Test generation
B.1.4 Microprogram Design Aids (D.2.2, D.2.4, D.3.2, D.3.4)
Firmware engineering
Languages and compilers
Machine-independent microcode generation
Optimization
Verification
B.1.5 Microcode Applications
Direct data manipulation
Firmware support of operating systems/instruction sets
Instruction set interpretation
Peripheral control
Special-purpose
B.1.m Miscellaneous
B.2 ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC STRUCTURES
B.2.0 General
B.2.1 Design Styles (C.1.1, C.1.2)
Calculator
Parallel
Pipeline
B.2.2 Performance Analysis and Design Aids
Simulation
Verification
Worst-case analysis
B.2.3 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
Diagnostics
Error-checking
Redundant design
Test generation
B.2.m Miscellaneous
B.3 MEMORY STRUCTURES
B.3.0 General
B.3.1 Unassigned
B.3.2 Design Styles (D.4.2)
Associative memories
Cache memories
Interleaved memories
Mass storage (e.g., magnetic, optical)
Primary memory
Sequential-access memory
Shared memory
Virtual memory
B.3.3 Performance Analysis and Design Aids (C.4)
Formal models
Simulation
Worst-case analysis
B.3.4 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
Diagnostics
Error-checking
Redundant design
Test generation
B.3.m Miscellaneous
B.4 INPUT/OUTPUT AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS
B.4.0 General
B.4.1 Data Communications Devices
Processors
Receivers (e.g., voice, data, image)
Transmitters
B.4.2 Input/Output Devices
Channels and controllers
Data terminals and printers
Image display
Voice
B.4.3 Interconnections (subsystems)
Asynchronous/synchronous operation
Fiber optics
Interfaces
Physical structures (e.g., backplanes, cables, chip carriers)
Topology (e.g., bus, point-to-point)
B.4.4 Performance Analysis and Design Aids
Formal models
Simulation
Verification
Worst-case analysis
B.4.5 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
Built-in tests
Diagnostics
Error-checking
Hardware reliability
Redundant design
Test generation
B.4.m Miscellaneous
B.5 REGISTER-TRANSFER-LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION
B.5.0 General
B.5.1 Design
Arithmetic and logic units
Control design
Data-path design
Memory design
Styles (e.g., parallel, pipelined, special-purpose)
B.5.2 Design Aids
Automatic synthesis
Hardware description languages
Optimization
Simulation
Verification
B.5.3 Reliability and Testing
Built-in tests
Error-checking
Redundant design
Test generation
Testability
B.5.m Miscellaneous
B.6 LOGIC DESIGN
B.6.0 General
B.6.1 Design Styles
Cellular arrays and automata
Combinational logic
Logic arrays
Memory control and access
Memory used as logic
Parallel circuits
Sequential circuits
B.6.2 Reliability and Testing
Built-in tests
Error-checking
Redundant design
Test generation
Testability
B.6.3 Design Aids
Automatic synthesis
Hardware description languages
Optimization
Simulation
Switching theory
Verification
B.6.m Miscellaneous
B.7 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
B.7.0 General
B.7.1 Types and Design Styles
Advanced technologies
Algorithms implemented in hardware
Gate arrays
Input/Output circuits
Memory technologies
Microprocessors and microcomputers
Standard cells
VLSI (very large scale integration)
B.7.2 Design Aids
Graphics
Layout
Placement and routing
Simulation
Verification
B.7.3 Reliability and Testing
Built-in tests
Error-checking
Redundant design
Test generation
Testability
B.7.m Miscellaneous
B.m MISCELLANEOUS
Design management
C. Computer Systems Organization
C.0 GENERAL
Hardware/software interfaces
Instruction set design (e.g., RISC, CISC)
System architectures
Systems specification methodology
C.1 PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES
C.1.0 General
C.1.1 Single Data Stream Architectures
Multiple-instruction-stream, single-data-stream processors (MISD)
Pipeline processors
Single-instruction-stream, single-data-stream processors (SISD)
Von Neumann architectures
C.1.2 Multiple Data Stream Architectures (Multiprocessors)
Array and vector processors
Associative processors
Connection machines
Interconnection architectures (e.g., common bus, multiport memory,
crossbar switch)
Multiple-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream processors (MIMD)
Parallel processors
Pipeline processors
Single-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream processors (SIMD)
C.1.3 Other Architecture Styles
Adaptable architectures
Capability architectures
Cellular architecture
Data-flow architectures
High-level language architectures
Neural nets
Stack-oriented processors
C.1.m Miscellaneous
Analog computers
Hybrid systems
C.2 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
C.2.0 General
Data communications
Open System Interconnection reference model (OSI)
Security and protection
C.2.1 Network Architecture and Design
Centralized networks
Circuit switching networks
Distributed networks
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
Network communications
Network topology
Packet networks
Store and forward networks
C.2.2 Network Protocols
Protocol architecture
Protocol verification
C.2.3 Network Operations
Network management
Network monitoring
Public networks
C.2.4 Distributed Systems
Distributed applications
Distributed databases
Network operating systems
C.2.5 Local Networks
Access schemes
Buses
Rings
C.2.m Miscellaneous
C.3 SPECIAL-PURPOSE AND APPLICATION-BASED SYSTEMS (J.7)
Microprocessor/microcomputer applications
Process control systems
Real-time systems
Signal processing systems
C.4 PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS
Design studies
Measurement techniques
Modeling techniques
Performance attributes
Reliability, availability, and serviceability
C.5 COMPUTER SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
C.5.0 General
C.5.1 Large and Medium ("Mainframe") Computers
Super (very large) computers
C.5.2 Minicomputers
C.5.3 Microcomputers
Microprocessors
Personal computers
Workstations
C.5.4 VLSI Systems
C.5.m Miscellaneous
C.m MISCELLANEOUS
D. Software
D.0 GENERAL
D.1 PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES (E)
D.1.0 General
D.1.1 Applicative (Functional) Programming
D.1.2 Automatic Programming (I.2.2)
D.1.3 Concurrent Programming
Distributed programming
Parallel programming
D.1.4 Sequential Programming
D.1.5 Object-oriented Programming
D.1.6 Logic Programming
D.1.7 Visual Programming
D.1.m Miscellaneous
D.2 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (K.6.3)
D.2.0 General (K.5.1)
Protection mechanisms
Standards
D.2.1 Requirements/Specifications (D.3.1)
Languages
Methodologies
Tools
D.2.2 Tools and Techniques
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
Decision tables
Flow charts
Modules and interfaces
Petri nets
Programmer workbench
Software libraries
Structured programming
Top-down programming
User interfaces
D.2.3 Coding
Pretty printers
Program editors
Reentrant code
Standards
D.2.4 Program Verification (F.3.1)
Assertion checkers
Correctness proofs
Reliability
Validation
D.2.5 Testing and Debugging
Code inspections and walk-throughs
Debugging aids
Diagnostics
Dumps
Error handling and recovery
Monitors
Symbolic execution
Test data generators
Tracing
D.2.6 Programming Environments
Interactive
D.2.7 Distribution and Maintenance
Corrections
Documentation
Enhancement
Extensibility
Portability
Restructuring
Version control
D.2.8 Metrics (D.4.8)
Complexity measures
Performance measures
Software science
D.2.9 Management (K.6.3, K.6.4)
Copyrights
Cost estimation
Life cycle
Productivity
Programming teams
Software configuration management
Software quality assurance (SQA)
Time estimation
D.2.10 Design
Methodologies
Representation
D.2.m Miscellaneous
Rapid prototyping
Reusable software
D.3 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
D.3.0 General
Standards
D.3.1 Formal Definitions and Theory (D.2.1, F.3.1-2, F.4.2-3)
Semantics
Syntax
D.3.2 Language Classifications
Applicative languages
Concurrent, distributed, and parallel languages
Data-flow languages
Design languages
Extensible languages
Macro and assembly languages
Microprogramming languages
Nondeterministic languages
Nonprocedural languages
Object-oriented languages
Specialized application languages
Very high-level languages
D.3.3 Language Constructs and Features (E.2)
Abstract data types
Concurrent programming structures
Control structures
Coroutines
Data types and structures
Dynamic storage management
Input/Output
Modules, packages
Procedures, functions, and subroutines
Recursion
D.3.4 Processors
Code generation
Compilers
Interpreters
Optimization
Parsing
Preprocessors
Run-time environments
Translator writing systems and compiler generators
D.3.m Miscellaneous
D.4 OPERATING SYSTEMS (C)
D.4.0 General
D.4.1 Process Management
Concurrency
Deadlocks
Multiprocessing/multiprogramming
Mutual exclusion
Scheduling
Synchronization
D.4.2 Storage Management
Allocation/deallocation strategies
Distributed memories
Main memory
Secondary storage
Segmentation
Storage hierarchies
Swapping
Virtual memory
D.4.3 File Systems Management (E.5)
Access methods
Directory structures
Distributed file systems
File organization
Maintenance
D.4.4 Communications Management (C.2)
Buffering
Input/Output
Message sending
Network communication
Terminal management
D.4.5 Reliability
Backup procedures
Checkpoint/restart
Fault-tolerance
Verification
D.4.6 Security and Protection (K.6.5)
Access controls
Authentication
Cryptographic controls
Information flow controls
Invasive software (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
Security kernels
Verification
D.4.7 Organization and Design
Batch processing systems
Distributed systems
Hierarchical design
Interactive systems
Real-time systems and embedded systems
D.4.8 Performance (C.4, D.2.8, I.6)
Measurements
Modeling and prediction
Monitors
Operational analysis
Queueing theory
Simulation
Stochastic analysis
D.4.9 Systems Programs and Utilities
Command and control languages
Linkers
Loaders
Window managers
D.4.m Miscellaneous
D.m MISCELLANEOUS
Software psychology
E. Data
E.0 GENERAL
E.1 DATA STRUCTURES
Arrays
Graphs
Lists
Tables
Trees
E.2 DATA STORAGE REPRESENTATIONS
Composite structures
Contiguous representations
Hash-table representations
Linked representations
Primitive data items
E.3 DATA ENCRYPTION
Data encryption standard (DES)
Public key cryptosystems
E.4 CODING AND INFORMATION THEORY (H.1.1)
Data compaction and compression
Error control codes
Formal models of communication
Nonsecret encoding schemes
E.5 FILES (D.4.3, F.2.2, H.2)
Backup/recovery
Optimization
Organization/structure
Sorting/searching
E.m MISCELLANEOUS
F. Theory of Computation
F.0 GENERAL
F.1 COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES
F.1.0 General
F.1.1 Models of Computation (F.4.1)
Automata (e.g., finite, push-down, resource-bounded)
Bounded-action devices (e.g., Turing machines, random access machines)
Computability theory
Relations among models
Self-modifying machines (e.g., neural networks)
Unbounded-action devices (e.g., cellular automata, circuits, networks of machines)
F.1.2 Modes of Computation
Alternation and nondetermination
Interactive computation
Parallelism and concurrency
Probabilistic computation
Relations among modes
Relativized computation
F.1.3 Complexity Classes (F.2)
Complexity hierarchies
Machine-independent complexity
Reducibility and completeness
Relations among complexity classes
Relations among complexity measures
F.1.m Miscellaneous
F.2 ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY (B.6-7, F.1.3)
F.2.0 General
F.2.1 Numerical Algorithms and Problems (G.1, G.4, I.1)
Computation of transforms (e.g., Fast Fourier transform)
Computations in finite fields
Computations on matrices
Computations on polynomials
Number-theoretic computations (e.g., factoring, primality testing)
F.2.2 Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems (E.2-5, G.2, H.2-3)
Complexity of proof procedures
Computations on discrete structures
Geometrical problems and computations
Pattern matching
Routing and layout
Sequencing and scheduling
Sorting and searching
F.2.3 Tradeoffs among Complexity Measures (F.1.3)
F.2.m Miscellaneous
F.3 LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS
F.3.0 General
F.3.1 Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning about Programs (D.2.1, D.2.4, D.3.1, E.1)
Assertions
Invariants
Logics of programs
Mechanical verification
Pre- and post-conditions
Specification techniques
F.3.2 Semantics of Programming Languages (D.3.1)
Algebraic approaches to semantics
Denotational semantics
Operational semantics
F.3.3 Studies of Program Constructs (D.3.2-3)
Control primitives
Functional constructs
Program and recursion schemes
Type structure
F.3.m Miscellaneous
F.4 MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND FORMAL LANGUAGES
F.4.0 General
F.4.1 Mathematical Logic (F.1.1, I.2.2-3)
Computability theory
Computational logic
Lambda calculus and related systems
Logic programming
Mechanical theorem proving
Model theory
Proof theory
Recursive function theory
F.4.2 Grammars and Other Rewriting Systems (D.3.1)
Decision problems
Grammar types (e.g., context-free, context-sensitive)
Parallel rewriting systems (e.g., development systems, L-systems)
Parsing
Thue systems
F.4.3 Formal Languages (D.3.1)
Algebraic language theory
Classes defined by grammars or automata (e.g., context-free languages,
regular sets, recursive sets)
Classes defined by resource-bounded automata
Decision problems
Operations on languages
F.4.m Miscellaneous
F.m MISCELLANEOUS
G. Mathematics of Computing
G.0 GENERAL
G.1 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
G.1.0 General
Computer arithmetic
Condition (and ill-condition)
Error analysis
Numerical algorithms
Parallel algorithms
Stability (and instability)
G.1.1 Interpolation
Difference formulas
Extrapolation
Interpolation formulas
Smoothing
Spline and piecewise polynomial interpolation
G.1.2 Approximation
Chebyshev approximation and theory
Elementary function approximation
Least squares approximation
Linear approximation
Minimax approximation and algorithms
Nonlinear approximation
Rational approximation
Spline and piecewise polynomial approximation
G.1.3 Numerical Linear Algebra
Conditioning
Determinants
Eigenvalues
Error analysis
Linear systems (direct and iterative methods)
Matrix inversion
Pseudoinverses
Sparse and very large systems
G.1.4 Quadrature and Numerical Differentiation
Adaptive quadrature
Equal interval integration
Error analysis
Finite difference methods
Gaussian quadrature
Iterative methods
Multiple quadrature
G.1.5 Roots of Nonlinear Equations
Convergence
Error analysis
Iterative methods
Polynomials, methods for
Systems of equations
G.1.6 Optimization
Constrained optimization
Gradient methods
Integer programming
Least squares methods
Linear programming
Nonlinear programming
G.1.7 Ordinary Differential Equations
Boundary value problems
Convergence and stability
Error analysis
Initial value problems
Multistep methods
Single step methods
Stiff equations
G.1.8 Partial Differential Equations
Difference methods
Elliptic equations
Finite element methods
Hyperbolic equations
Method of lines
Parabolic equations
G.1.9 Integral Equations
Fredholm equations
Integro-differential equations
Volterra equations
G.1.m Miscellaneous
G.2 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
G.2.0 General
G.2.1 Combinatorics (F.2.2)
Combinatorial algorithms
Counting problems
Generating functions
Permutations and combinations
Recurrences and difference equations
G.2.2 Graph Theory (F.2.2)
Graph algorithms
Network problems
Path and circuit problems
Trees
G.2.m Miscellaneous
G.3 PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
Probabilistic algorithms (including Monte Carlo)
Random number generation
Statistical computing
Statistical software
G.4 MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE
Algorithm analysis
Certification and testing
Efficiency
Portability
Reliability and robustness
Verification
G.m MISCELLANEOUS
Queueing theory
H. Information Systems
H.0 GENERAL
H.1 MODELS AND PRINCIPLES
H.1.0 General
H.1.1 Systems and Information Theory (E.4)
General systems theory
Information theory
Value of information
H.1.2 User/Machine Systems
Human factors
Human information processing
H.1.m Miscellaneous
H.2 DATABASE MANAGEMENT (E.5)
H.2.0 General
Security, integrity, and protection
H.2.1 Logical Design
Data models
Normal forms
Schema and subschema
H.2.2 Physical Design
Access methods
Deadlock avoidance
Recovery and restart
H.2.3 Languages (D.3.2)
Data description languages (DDL)
Data manipulation languages (DML)
Query languages
Report writers
H.2.4 Systems
Concurrency
Distributed systems
Query processing
Transaction processing
H.2.5 Heterogeneous Databases
Data translation
Program translation
H.2.6 Database Machines
H.2.7 Database Administration
Data dictionary/directory
Logging and recovery
H.2.8 Database Applications
H.2.m Miscellaneous
H.3 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL
H.3.0 General
H.3.1 Content Analysis and Indexing
Abstracting methods
Dictionaries
Indexing methods
Linguistic processing
Thesauruses
H.3.2 Information Storage
File organization
Record classification
H.3.3 Information Search and Retrieval
Clustering
Query formulation
Retrieval models
Search process
Selection process
H.3.4 Systems and Software
Current awareness systems (selective dissemination of information--SDI)
Information networks
Question-answering (fact retrieval) systems
H.3.5 Online Information Services
Data bank sharing
H.3.6 Library Automation
Large text archives
H.3.m Miscellaneous
H.4 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS
H.4.0 General
H.4.1 Office Automation (I.7)
Equipment
Spreadsheets
Time management (e.g., calendars, schedules)
Word processing
H.4.2 Types of Systems
Decision support (e.g., MIS)
Logistics
H.4.3 Communications Applications
Bulletin boards
Computer conferencing and teleconferencing
Electronic mail
Videotex
H.4.m Miscellaneous
H.5 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION (I.7)
H.5.0 General
H.5.1 Multimedia Information Systems
Animations
Artificial realities
Audio input/output
Evaluation/methodology
Hypertext navigation and maps
Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI)
H.5.2 User Interfaces (D.2.2, H.1.2, I.3.6)
Ergonomics
Evaluation/methodology
Input devices and strategies (e.g., mouse, touchscreen)
Interaction styles (e.g., commands, menus, forms, direct manipulation)
Screen design (e.g., text, graphics, color)
Theory and methods
Training, help, and documentation
User interface management systems (UIMS)
Windowing systems
H.5.3 Group and Organization Interfaces
Asynchronous interaction
Evaluation/methodology
Organizational design
Synchronous interaction
Theory and models
H.m MISCELLANEOUS
I. Computing Methodologies
I.0 GENERAL
I.1 ALGEBRAIC MANIPULATION
I.1.0 General
I.1.1 Expressions and Their Representation (E.1-2)
Representations (general and polynomial)
Simplification of expressions
I.1.2 Algorithms (F.2.1-2)
Algebraic algorithms
Analysis of algorithms
Nonalgebraic algorithms
I.1.3 Languages and Systems (D.3.2-3, F.2.2)
Evaluation strategies
Nonprocedural languages
Special-purpose algebraic systems
Special-purpose hardware
Substitution mechanisms
I.1.4 Applications
I.1.m Miscellaneous
I.2 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
I.2.0 General
Cognitive simulation
Philosophical foundations
I.2.1 Applications and Expert Systems (H.4,J)
Cartography
Games
Industrial automation
Law
Medicine and science
Natural language interfaces
Office automation
I.2.2 Automatic Programming (D.1.2, F.3.1)
Automatic analysis of algorithms
Program modification
Program synthesis
Program transformation
Program verification
I.2.3 Deduction and Theorem Proving
Answer/reason extraction
Deduction (e.g., natural, rule-based)
Logic programming
Mathematical induction
Metatheory
Nonmonotonic reasoning and belief revision
Resolution
Uncertainty, "fuzzy," and probabilistic reasoning
I.2.4 Knowledge Representation Formalisms and Methods
Frames and scripts
Predicate logic
Relation systems
Representation languages
Representations (procedural and rule-based)
Semantic networks
I.2.5 Programming Languages and Software (D.3.2)
Expert system tools and techniques
I.2.6 Learning (K.3.2)
Analogies
Concept learning
Connectionism and neural nets
Induction
Knowledge acquisition
Language acquisition
Parameter learning
I.2.7 Natural Language Processing
Discourse
Language generation
Language models
Language parsing and understanding
Machine translation
Speech recognition and synthesis
Text analysis
I.2.8 Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (F.2.2)
Backtracking
Dynamic programming
Graph and tree search strategies
Heuristic methods
Plan execution, formation, generation
I.2.9 Robotics
Manipulators
Propelling mechanisms
Sensors
I.2.10 Vision and Scene Understanding (I.4.8, I.5)
Architecture and control structures
Intensity, color, photometry and thresholding
Modeling and recovery of physical attributes
Motion
Perceptual reasoning
Representations, data structures, and transforms
Shape
Texture
I.2.11 Distributed Artificial Intelligence
Coherence and coordination
Languages and structures
I.2.m Miscellaneous
I.3 COMPUTER GRAPHICS
I.3.0 General
I.3.1 Hardware Architecture (B.4.2)
Graphics processors
Hardcopy devices
Input devices
Parallel processing
Raster display devices
Storage devices
Three-dimensional displays
Vector display devices
I.3.2 Graphics Systems (C.2.1, C.2.4, C.3)
Distributed/network graphics
Remote systems
Stand-alone systems
I.3.3 Picture/Image Generation
Antialiasing
Bitmap and framebuffer operations
Digitizing and scanning
Display algorithms
Line and curve generation
Viewing algorithms
I.3.4 Graphics Utilities
Application packages
Device drivers
Graphics editors
Graphics packages
Meta files
Paint systems
Picture description languages
Software support
Virtual device interfaces
I.3.5 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling
Boundary representations
Constructive solid geometry (CSG)
Curve, surface, solid, and object representations
Geometric algorithms, languages, and systems
Hierarchy and geometric transformations
Modeling packages
Object hierarchies
Physically based modeling
Splines
I.3.6 Methodology and Techniques
Device independence
Ergonomics
Graphics data structures and data types
Interaction techniques
Languages
Standards
I.3.7 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism
Animation
Color, shading, shadowing, and texture
Fractals
Hidden line/surface removal
Radiosity
Raytracing
Virtual reality
Visible line/surface algorithms
I.3.8 Applications
I.3.m Miscellaneous
I.4 IMAGE PROCESSING
I.4.0 General
Image displays
Image processing software
I.4.1 Digitization
Quantization
Sampling
Scanning
I.4.2 Compression (Coding) (E.4)
Approximate methods
Exact coding
I.4.3 Enhancement
Filtering
Geometric correction
Grayscale manipulation
Registration
Sharpening and deblurring
Smoothing
I.4.4 Restoration
Inverse filtering
Kalman filtering
Pseudoinverse restoration
Wiener filtering
I.4.5 Reconstruction
Series expansion methods
Summation methods
Transform methods
I.4.6 Segmentation
Edge and feature detection
Pixel classification
Region growing, partitioning
I.4.7 Feature Measurement
Invariants
Moments
Projections
Size and shape
Texture
I.4.8 Scene Analysis
Depth cues
Photometry
Range data
Sensor fusion
Stereo
Time-varying imagery
I.4.9 Applications
I.4.10 Image Representation
Hierarchical
Morphological
Multidimensional
Statistical
Volumetric
I.4.m Miscellaneous
I.5 PATTERN RECOGNITION
I.5.0 General
I.5.1 Models
Deterministic
Fuzzy set
Geometric
Neural nets
Statistical
Structural
I.5.2 Design Methodology
Classifier design and evaluation
Feature evaluation and selection
Pattern analysis
I.5.3 Clustering
Algorithms
Similarity measures
I.5.4 Applications
Computer vision
Signal processing
Text processing
Waveform analysis
I.5.5 Implementation (C.3)
Interactive systems
Special architectures
I.5.m Miscellaneous
I.6 SIMULATION AND MODELING (G.3)
I.6.0 General
I.6.1 Simulation Theory
Model classification
Systems theory
Types of simulation (continuous and discrete)*
I.6.2 Simulation Languages
I.6.3 Applications
I.6.4 Model Validation and Analysis
I.6.5 Model Development
Modeling methodologies
I.6.6 Simulation Output Analysis
I.6.7 Simulation Support Systems
Environments
I.6.8 Types of Simulation
Animation
Combined
Continuous
Discrete event
Distributed
Gaming
Monte Carlo
Parallel
Visual
I.6.m Miscellaneous
I.7 TEXT PROCESSING (H.4-5)
I.7.0 General
I.7.1 Text Editing
Languages
Spelling
I.7.2 Document Preparation
Desktop publishing
Format and notation
Hypertext/hypermedia
Languages and systems
Multi/mixed media
Photocomposition/typesetting
Standards
I.7.3 Index Generation
I.7.m Miscellaneous
I.m MISCELLANEOUS
J. Computer Applications
J.0 General
J.1 ADMINISTRATIVE DATA PROCESSING
Business
Education
Financial (e.g., EFTS)
Government
Law
Manufacturing
Marketing
Military
J.2 PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING
Aerospace
Astronomy
Chemistry
Earth and atmospheric sciences
Electronics
Engineering
Mathematics and statistics
Physics
J.3 LIFE AND MEDICAL SCIENCES
Biology
Health
Medical information systems
J.4 SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
Economics
Psychology
Sociology
J.5 ARTS AND HUMANITIES
Arts, fine and performing
Language translation
Linguistics
Literature
Music
J.6 COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING
Computer-aided design (CAD)
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
J.7 COMPUTERS IN OTHER SYSTEMS (C.3)
Command and control
Consumer products
Industrial control
Military
Process control
Publishing
Real time
J.m MISCELLANEOUS
K. Computing Milieux
K.0 GENERAL
K.1 THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY
Markets
Standards
Statistics
Suppliers
K.2 HISTORY OF COMPUTING
Hardware
People
Software
Systems
Theory
K.3 COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION
K.3.0 General
K.3.1 Computer Uses in Education
Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
Computer-managed instruction (CMI)
K.3.2 Computer and Information Science Education
Computer science education
Curriculum
Information systems education
Self-assessment
K.3.m Miscellaneous
Accreditation
Computer literacy
K.4 COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY
K.4.0 General
K.4.1 Public Policy Issues
Human safety
Privacy
Regulation
Transborder data flow
K.4.2 Social Issues
Abuse and crime involving computers
Employment
Handicapped persons/special needs
K.4.3 Organizational Impacts
K.4.m Miscellaneous
K.5 LEGAL ASPECTS OF COMPUTING
K.5.0 General
K.5.1 Software Protection
Copyrights
Patents
Proprietary rights
Trade secrets
K.5.2 Governmental Issues
Regulation
Taxation
K.5.m Miscellaneous
Contracts
Hardware patents
K.6 MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
K.6.0 General
Economics
K.6.1 Project and People Management
Life cycle
Management techniques (e.g., PERT/CPM)
Staffing
Systems analysis and design
Systems development
Training
K.6.2 Installation Management
Benchmarks
Computer selection
Computing equipment management
Performance and usage measurement
Pricing and resource allocation
K.6.3 Software Management
Software development
Software maintenance
Software selection
K.6.4 System Management
Centralization/decentralization
Management audit
Quality assurance
K.6.5 Security and Protection (D.4.6, K.4.2)
Authentication
Insurance
Invasive software (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
Physical security
K.6.m Miscellaneous
Insurance*
Security*
K.7 THE COMPUTING PROFESSION
K.7.0 General
K.7.1 Occupations
K.7.2 Organizations
K.7.3 Testing, Certification, and Licensing
K.7.m Miscellaneous
Codes of good practice
Ethics
K.8 PERSONAL COMPUTING
Games*
K.8.0 General
Games
K.8.1 Application Packages
Data communications
Database processing
Graphics
Spreadsheets
Word processing
K.8.2 Hardware
K.8.3 Management/Maintenance
K.m MISCELLANEOUS
*Indicates that the classification is no longer be used as of January 1991,
but that the item is still searchable for previously classified documents.