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The 1991 ACM Computing Classification System

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The ACM Computing Classification System (1991)

  • A. General Literature
    • A.0 GENERAL
      • Biographies/autobiographies
      • Conference proceedings
      • General literary works (e.g., fiction, plays)
    • A.1 INTRODUCTORY AND SURVEY
    • A.2 REFERENCE (e.g., dictionaries, encyclopedias, glossaries)
    • A.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • B. Hardware
    • B.0 GENERAL
    • B.1 CONTROL STRUCTURES AND MICROPROGRAMMING (D.3.2)
      • B.1.0 General
      • B.1.1 Control Design Styles
        • Hardwired control
        • Microprogrammed logic arrays
        • Writable control store
      • B.1.2 Control Structure Performance Analysis and Design Aids
        • Automatic synthesis
        • Formal models
        • Simulation
      • B.1.3 Control Structure Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
        • Diagnostics
        • Error-checking
        • Redundant checking
        • Test generation
      • B.1.4 Microprogram Design Aids (D.2.2, D.2.4, D.3.2, D.3.4)
        • Firmware engineering
        • Languages and compilers
        • Machine-independent microcode generation
        • Optimization
        • Verification
      • B.1.5 Microcode Applications
        • Direct data manipulation
        • Firmware support of operating systems/instruction sets
        • Instruction set interpretation
        • Peripheral control
        • Special-purpose
      • B.1.m Miscellaneous
    • B.2 ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC STRUCTURES
      • B.2.0 General
      • B.2.1 Design Styles (C.1.1, C.1.2)
        • Calculator
        • Parallel
        • Pipeline
      • B.2.2 Performance Analysis and Design Aids
        • Simulation
        • Verification
        • Worst-case analysis
      • B.2.3 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
        • Diagnostics
        • Error-checking
        • Redundant design
        • Test generation
      • B.2.m Miscellaneous
    • B.3 MEMORY STRUCTURES
      • B.3.0 General
      • B.3.1 Unassigned
      • B.3.2 Design Styles (D.4.2)
        • Associative memories
        • Cache memories
        • Interleaved memories
        • Mass storage (e.g., magnetic, optical)
        • Primary memory
        • Sequential-access memory
        • Shared memory
        • Virtual memory
      • B.3.3 Performance Analysis and Design Aids (C.4)
        • Formal models
        • Simulation
        • Worst-case analysis
      • B.3.4 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
        • Diagnostics
        • Error-checking
        • Redundant design
        • Test generation
      • B.3.m Miscellaneous
    • B.4 INPUT/OUTPUT AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS
      • B.4.0 General
      • B.4.1 Data Communications Devices
        • Processors
        • Receivers (e.g., voice, data, image)
        • Transmitters
      • B.4.2 Input/Output Devices
        • Channels and controllers
        • Data terminals and printers
        • Image display
        • Voice
      • B.4.3 Interconnections (subsystems)
        • Asynchronous/synchronous operation
        • Fiber optics
        • Interfaces
        • Physical structures (e.g., backplanes, cables, chip carriers)
        • Topology (e.g., bus, point-to-point)
      • B.4.4 Performance Analysis and Design Aids
        • Formal models
        • Simulation
        • Verification
        • Worst-case analysis
      • B.4.5 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance
        • Built-in tests
        • Diagnostics
        • Error-checking
        • Hardware reliability
        • Redundant design
        • Test generation
      • B.4.m Miscellaneous
    • B.5 REGISTER-TRANSFER-LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION
      • B.5.0 General
      • B.5.1 Design
        • Arithmetic and logic units
        • Control design
        • Data-path design
        • Memory design
        • Styles (e.g., parallel, pipelined, special-purpose)
      • B.5.2 Design Aids
        • Automatic synthesis
        • Hardware description languages
        • Optimization
        • Simulation
        • Verification
      • B.5.3 Reliability and Testing
        • Built-in tests
        • Error-checking
        • Redundant design
        • Test generation
        • Testability
      • B.5.m Miscellaneous
    • B.6 LOGIC DESIGN
      • B.6.0 General
      • B.6.1 Design Styles
        • Cellular arrays and automata
        • Combinational logic
        • Logic arrays
        • Memory control and access
        • Memory used as logic
        • Parallel circuits
        • Sequential circuits
      • B.6.2 Reliability and Testing
        • Built-in tests
        • Error-checking
        • Redundant design
        • Test generation
        • Testability
      • B.6.3 Design Aids
        • Automatic synthesis
        • Hardware description languages
        • Optimization
        • Simulation
        • Switching theory
        • Verification
      • B.6.m Miscellaneous
    • B.7 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
      • B.7.0 General
      • B.7.1 Types and Design Styles
        • Advanced technologies
        • Algorithms implemented in hardware
        • Gate arrays
        • Input/Output circuits
        • Memory technologies
        • Microprocessors and microcomputers
        • Standard cells
        • VLSI (very large scale integration)
      • B.7.2 Design Aids
        • Graphics
        • Layout
        • Placement and routing
        • Simulation
        • Verification
      • B.7.3 Reliability and Testing
        • Built-in tests
        • Error-checking
        • Redundant design
        • Test generation
        • Testability
      • B.7.m Miscellaneous
    • B.m MISCELLANEOUS
      • Design management
  • C. Computer Systems Organization
    • C.0 GENERAL
      • Hardware/software interfaces
      • Instruction set design (e.g., RISC, CISC)
      • System architectures
      • Systems specification methodology
    • C.1 PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES
      • C.1.0 General
      • C.1.1 Single Data Stream Architectures
        • Multiple-instruction-stream, single-data-stream processors (MISD)
        • Pipeline processors
        • Single-instruction-stream, single-data-stream processors (SISD)
        • Von Neumann architectures
      • C.1.2 Multiple Data Stream Architectures (Multiprocessors)
        • Array and vector processors
        • Associative processors
        • Connection machines
        • Interconnection architectures (e.g., common bus, multiport memory, crossbar switch)
        • Multiple-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream processors (MIMD)
        • Parallel processors
        • Pipeline processors
        • Single-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream processors (SIMD)
      • C.1.3 Other Architecture Styles
        • Adaptable architectures
        • Capability architectures
        • Cellular architecture
        • Data-flow architectures
        • High-level language architectures
        • Neural nets
        • Stack-oriented processors
      • C.1.m Miscellaneous
        • Analog computers
        • Hybrid systems
    • C.2 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
      • C.2.0 General
        • Data communications
        • Open System Interconnection reference model (OSI)
        • Security and protection
      • C.2.1 Network Architecture and Design
        • Centralized networks
        • Circuit switching networks
        • Distributed networks
        • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
        • Network communications
        • Network topology
        • Packet networks
        • Store and forward networks
      • C.2.2 Network Protocols
        • Protocol architecture
        • Protocol verification
      • C.2.3 Network Operations
        • Network management
        • Network monitoring
        • Public networks
      • C.2.4 Distributed Systems
        • Distributed applications
        • Distributed databases
        • Network operating systems
      • C.2.5 Local Networks
        • Access schemes
        • Buses
        • Rings
      • C.2.m Miscellaneous
    • C.3 SPECIAL-PURPOSE AND APPLICATION-BASED SYSTEMS (J.7)
      • Microprocessor/microcomputer applications
      • Process control systems
      • Real-time systems
      • Signal processing systems
    • C.4 PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS
      • Design studies
      • Measurement techniques
      • Modeling techniques
      • Performance attributes
      • Reliability, availability, and serviceability
    • C.5 COMPUTER SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
      • C.5.0 General
      • C.5.1 Large and Medium ("Mainframe") Computers
        • Super (very large) computers
      • C.5.2 Minicomputers
      • C.5.3 Microcomputers
        • Microprocessors
        • Personal computers
        • Workstations
      • C.5.4 VLSI Systems
      • C.5.m Miscellaneous
    • C.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • D. Software
    • D.0 GENERAL
    • D.1 PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES (E)
      • D.1.0 General
      • D.1.1 Applicative (Functional) Programming
      • D.1.2 Automatic Programming (I.2.2)
      • D.1.3 Concurrent Programming
        • Distributed programming
        • Parallel programming
      • D.1.4 Sequential Programming
      • D.1.5 Object-oriented Programming
      • D.1.6 Logic Programming
      • D.1.7 Visual Programming
      • D.1.m Miscellaneous
    • D.2 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (K.6.3)
      • D.2.0 General (K.5.1)
        • Protection mechanisms
        • Standards
      • D.2.1 Requirements/Specifications (D.3.1)
        • Languages
        • Methodologies
        • Tools
      • D.2.2 Tools and Techniques
        • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
        • Decision tables
        • Flow charts
        • Modules and interfaces
        • Petri nets
        • Programmer workbench
        • Software libraries
        • Structured programming
        • Top-down programming
        • User interfaces
      • D.2.3 Coding
        • Pretty printers
        • Program editors
        • Reentrant code
        • Standards
      • D.2.4 Program Verification (F.3.1)
        • Assertion checkers
        • Correctness proofs
        • Reliability
        • Validation
      • D.2.5 Testing and Debugging
        • Code inspections and walk-throughs
        • Debugging aids
        • Diagnostics
        • Dumps
        • Error handling and recovery
        • Monitors
        • Symbolic execution
        • Test data generators
        • Tracing
      • D.2.6 Programming Environments
        • Interactive
      • D.2.7 Distribution and Maintenance
        • Corrections
        • Documentation
        • Enhancement
        • Extensibility
        • Portability
        • Restructuring
        • Version control
      • D.2.8 Metrics (D.4.8)
        • Complexity measures
        • Performance measures
        • Software science
      • D.2.9 Management (K.6.3, K.6.4)
        • Copyrights
        • Cost estimation
        • Life cycle
        • Productivity
        • Programming teams
        • Software configuration management
        • Software quality assurance (SQA)
        • Time estimation
      • D.2.10 Design
        • Methodologies
        • Representation
      • D.2.m Miscellaneous
        • Rapid prototyping
        • Reusable software
    • D.3 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
      • D.3.0 General
        • Standards
      • D.3.1 Formal Definitions and Theory (D.2.1, F.3.1, F.3.2, F.4.2, F.4.3)
        • Semantics
        • Syntax
      • D.3.2 Language Classifications
        • Applicative languages
        • Concurrent, distributed, and parallel languages
        • Data-flow languages
        • Design languages
        • Extensible languages
        • Macro and assembly languages
        • Microprogramming languages
        • Nondeterministic languages
        • Nonprocedural languages
        • Object-oriented languages
        • Specialized application languages
        • Very high-level languages
      • D.3.3 Language Constructs and Features (E.2)
        • Abstract data types
        • Concurrent programming structures
        • Control structures
        • Coroutines
        • Data types and structures
        • Dynamic storage management
        • Input/Output
        • Modules, packages
        • Procedures, functions, and subroutines
        • Recursion
      • D.3.4 Processors
        • Code generation
        • Compilers
        • Interpreters
        • Optimization
        • Parsing
        • Preprocessors
        • Run-time environments
        • Translator writing systems and compiler generators
      • D.3.m Miscellaneous
    • D.4 OPERATING SYSTEMS (C)
      • D.4.0 General
      • D.4.1 Process Management
        • Concurrency
        • Deadlocks
        • Multiprocessing/multiprogramming
        • Mutual exclusion
        • Scheduling
        • Synchronization
      • D.4.2 Storage Management
        • Allocation/deallocation strategies
        • Distributed memories
        • Main memory
        • Secondary storage
        • Segmentation
        • Storage hierarchies
        • Swapping
        • Virtual memory
      • D.4.3 File Systems Management (E.5)
        • Access methods
        • Directory structures
        • Distributed file systems
        • File organization
        • Maintenance
      • D.4.4 Communications Management (C.2)
        • Buffering
        • Input/Output
        • Message sending
        • Network communication
        • Terminal management
      • D.4.5 Reliability
        • Backup procedures
        • Checkpoint/restart
        • Fault-tolerance
        • Verification
      • D.4.6 Security and Protection (K.6.5)
        • Access controls
        • Authentication
        • Cryptographic controls
        • Information flow controls
        • Invasive software (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
        • Security kernels
        • Verification
      • D.4.7 Organization and Design
        • Batch processing systems
        • Distributed systems
        • Hierarchical design
        • Interactive systems
        • Real-time systems and embedded systems
      • D.4.8 Performance (C.4, D.2.8, I.6)
        • Measurements
        • Modeling and prediction
        • Monitors
        • Operational analysis
        • Queueing theory
        • Simulation
        • Stochastic analysis
      • D.4.9 Systems Programs and Utilities
        • Command and control languages
        • Linkers
        • Loaders
        • Window managers
      • D.4.m Miscellaneous
    • D.m MISCELLANEOUS
      • Software psychology
  • E. Data
    • E.0 GENERAL
    • E.1 DATA STRUCTURES
      • Arrays
      • Graphs
      • Lists
      • Tables
      • Trees
    • E.2 DATA STORAGE REPRESENTATIONS
      • Composite structures
      • Contiguous representations
      • Hash-table representations
      • Linked representations
      • Primitive data items
    • E.3 DATA ENCRYPTION
      • Data encryption standard (DES)
      • Public key cryptosystems
    • E.4 CODING AND INFORMATION THEORY (H.1.1)
      • Data compaction and compression
      • Error control codes
      • Formal models of communication
      • Nonsecret encoding schemes
    • E.5 FILES (D.4.3, F.2.2, H.2)
      • Backup/recovery
      • Optimization
      • Organization/structure
      • Sorting/searching
    • E.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • F. Theory of Computation
    • F.0 GENERAL
    • F.1 COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES
      • F.1.0 General
      • F.1.1 Models of Computation (F.4.1)
        • Automata (e.g., finite, push-down, resource-bounded)
        • Bounded-action devices (e.g., Turing machines, random access machines)
        • Computability theory
        • Relations among models
        • Self-modifying machines (e.g., neural networks)
        • Unbounded-action devices (e.g., cellular automata, circuits, networks of machines)
      • F.1.2 Modes of Computation
        • Alternation and nondetermination
        • Interactive computation
        • Parallelism and concurrency
        • Probabilistic computation
        • Relations among modes
        • Relativized computation
      • F.1.3 Complexity Classes (F.2)
        • Complexity hierarchies
        • Machine-independent complexity
        • Reducibility and completeness
        • Relations among complexity classes
        • Relations among complexity measures
      • F.1.m Miscellaneous
    • F.2 ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY (B.6, B.7, F.1.3)
      • F.2.0 General
      • F.2.1 Numerical Algorithms and Problems (G.1, G.4, I.1)
        • Computation of transforms (e.g., Fast Fourier transform)
        • Computations in finite fields
        • Computations on matrices
        • Computations on polynomials
        • Number-theoretic computations (e.g., factoring, primality testing)
      • F.2.2 Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems (E.2, E.3, E.4, E.5, G.2, H.2, H.3)
        • Complexity of proof procedures
        • Computations on discrete structures
        • Geometrical problems and computations
        • Pattern matching
        • Routing and layout
        • Sequencing and scheduling
        • Sorting and searching
      • F.2.3 Tradeoffs among Complexity Measures (F.1.3)
      • F.2.m Miscellaneous
    • F.3 LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS
      • F.3.0 General
      • F.3.1 Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning about Programs (D.2.1, D.2.4, D.3.1, E.1)
        • Assertions
        • Invariants
        • Logics of programs
        • Mechanical verification
        • Pre- and post-conditions
        • Specification techniques
      • F.3.2 Semantics of Programming Languages (D.3.1)
        • Algebraic approaches to semantics
        • Denotational semantics
        • Operational semantics
      • F.3.3 Studies of Program Constructs (D.3.2, D.3.3)
        • Control primitives
        • Functional constructs
        • Program and recursion schemes
        • Type structure
      • F.3.m Miscellaneous
    • F.4 MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND FORMAL LANGUAGES
      • F.4.0 General
      • F.4.1 Mathematical Logic (F.1.1, I.2.2, I.2.3)
        • Computability theory
        • Computational logic
        • Lambda calculus and related systems
        • Logic programming
        • Mechanical theorem proving
        • Model theory
        • Proof theory
        • Recursive function theory
      • F.4.2 Grammars and Other Rewriting Systems (D.3.1)
        • Decision problems
        • Grammar types (e.g., context-free, context-sensitive)
        • Parallel rewriting systems (e.g., development systems, L-systems)
        • Parsing
        • Thue systems
      • F.4.3 Formal Languages (D.3.1)
        • Algebraic language theory
        • Classes defined by grammars or automata (e.g., context-free languages, regular sets, recursive sets)
        • Classes defined by resource-bounded automata
        • Decision problems
        • Operations on languages
      • F.4.m Miscellaneous
    • F.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • G. Mathematics of Computing
    • G.0 GENERAL
    • G.1 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
      • G.1.0 General
        • Computer arithmetic
        • Condition (and ill-condition)
        • Error analysis
        • Numerical algorithms
        • Parallel algorithms
        • Stability (and instability)
      • G.1.1 Interpolation
        • Difference formulas
        • Extrapolation
        • Interpolation formulas
        • Smoothing
        • Spline and piecewise polynomial interpolation
      • G.1.2 Approximation
        • Chebyshev approximation and theory
        • Elementary function approximation
        • Least squares approximation
        • Linear approximation
        • Minimax approximation and algorithms
        • Nonlinear approximation
        • Rational approximation
        • Spline and piecewise polynomial approximation
      • G.1.3 Numerical Linear Algebra
        • Conditioning
        • Determinants
        • Eigenvalues
        • Error analysis
        • Linear systems (direct and iterative methods)
        • Matrix inversion
        • Pseudoinverses
        • Sparse and very large systems
      • G.1.4 Quadrature and Numerical Differentiation
        • Adaptive quadrature
        • Equal interval integration
        • Error analysis
        • Finite difference methods
        • Gaussian quadrature
        • Iterative methods
        • Multiple quadrature
      • G.1.5 Roots of Nonlinear Equations
        • Convergence
        • Error analysis
        • Iterative methods
        • Polynomials, methods for
        • Systems of equations
      • G.1.6 Optimization
        • Constrained optimization
        • Gradient methods
        • Integer programming
        • Least squares methods
        • Linear programming
        • Nonlinear programming
      • G.1.7 Ordinary Differential Equations
        • Boundary value problems
        • Convergence and stability
        • Error analysis
        • Initial value problems
        • Multistep methods
        • Single step methods
        • Stiff equations
      • G.1.8 Partial Differential Equations
        • Difference methods
        • Elliptic equations
        • Finite element methods
        • Hyperbolic equations
        • Method of lines
        • Parabolic equations
      • G.1.9 Integral Equations
        • Fredholm equations
        • Integro-differential equations
        • Volterra equations
      • G.1.m Miscellaneous
    • G.2 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
      • G.2.0 General
      • G.2.1 Combinatorics (F.2.2)
        • Combinatorial algorithms
        • Counting problems
        • Generating functions
        • Permutations and combinations
        • Recurrences and difference equations
      • G.2.2 Graph Theory (F.2.2)
        • Graph algorithms
        • Network problems
        • Path and circuit problems
        • Trees
      • G.2.m Miscellaneous
    • G.3 PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
      • Probabilistic algorithms (including Monte Carlo)
      • Random number generation
      • Statistical computing
      • Statistical software
    • G.4 MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE
      • Algorithm analysis
      • Certification and testing
      • Efficiency
      • Portability
      • Reliability and robustness
      • Verification
    • G.m MISCELLANEOUS
      • Queueing theory
  • H. Information Systems
    • H.0 GENERAL
    • H.1 MODELS AND PRINCIPLES
      • H.1.0 General
      • H.1.1 Systems and Information Theory (E.4)
        • General systems theory
        • Information theory
        • Value of information
      • H.1.2 User/Machine Systems
        • Human factors
        • Human information processing
      • H.1.m Miscellaneous
    • H.2 DATABASE MANAGEMENT (E.5)
      • H.2.0 General
        • Security, integrity, and protection
      • H.2.1 Logical Design
        • Data models
        • Normal forms
        • Schema and subschema
      • H.2.2 Physical Design
        • Access methods
        • Deadlock avoidance
        • Recovery and restart
      • H.2.3 Languages (D.3.2)
        • Data description languages (DDL)
        • Data manipulation languages (DML)
        • Query languages
        • Report writers
      • H.2.4 Systems
        • Concurrency
        • Distributed systems
        • Query processing
        • Transaction processing
      • H.2.5 Heterogeneous Databases
        • Data translation
        • Program translation
      • H.2.6 Database Machines
      • H.2.7 Database Administration
        • Data dictionary/directory
        • Logging and recovery
      • H.2.8 Database Applications
      • H.2.m Miscellaneous
    • H.3 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL
      • H.3.0 General
      • H.3.1 Content Analysis and Indexing
        • Abstracting methods
        • Dictionaries
        • Indexing methods
        • Linguistic processing
        • Thesauruses
      • H.3.2 Information Storage
        • File organization
        • Record classification
      • H.3.3 Information Search and Retrieval
        • Clustering
        • Query formulation
        • Retrieval models
        • Search process
        • Selection process
      • H.3.4 Systems and Software
        • Current awareness systems (selective dissemination of information--SDI)
        • Information networks
        • Question-answering (fact retrieval) systems
      • H.3.5 Online Information Services
        • Data bank sharing
      • H.3.6 Library Automation
        • Large text archives
      • H.3.m Miscellaneous
    • H.4 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS
      • H.4.0 General
      • H.4.1 Office Automation (I.7)
        • Equipment
        • Spreadsheets
        • Time management (e.g., calendars, schedules)
        • Word processing
      • H.4.2 Types of Systems
        • Decision support (e.g., MIS)
        • Logistics
      • H.4.3 Communications Applications
        • Bulletin boards
        • Computer conferencing and teleconferencing
        • Electronic mail
        • Videotex
      • H.4.m Miscellaneous
    • H.5 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION (I.7)
      • H.5.0 General
      • H.5.1 Multimedia Information Systems
        • Animations
        • Artificial realities
        • Audio input/output
        • Evaluation/methodology
        • Hypertext navigation and maps
        • Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI)
      • H.5.2 User Interfaces (D.2.2, H.1.2, I.3.6)
        • Ergonomics
        • Evaluation/methodology
        • Input devices and strategies (e.g., mouse, touchscreen)
        • Interaction styles (e.g., commands, menus, forms, direct manipulation)
        • Screen design (e.g., text, graphics, color)
        • Theory and methods
        • Training, help, and documentation
        • User interface management systems (UIMS)
        • Windowing systems
      • H.5.3 Group and Organization Interfaces
        • Asynchronous interaction
        • Evaluation/methodology
        • Organizational design
        • Synchronous interaction
        • Theory and models
    • H.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • I. Computing Methodologies
    • I.0 GENERAL
    • I.1 ALGEBRAIC MANIPULATION
      • I.1.0 General
      • I.1.1 Expressions and Their Representation (E.1, E.2)
        • Representations (general and polynomial)
        • Simplification of expressions
      • I.1.2 Algorithms (F.2.1, F.2.2)
        • Algebraic algorithms
        • Analysis of algorithms
        • Nonalgebraic algorithms
      • I.1.3 Languages and Systems (D.3.2, D.3.3, F.2.2)
        • Evaluation strategies
        • Nonprocedural languages
        • Special-purpose algebraic systems
        • Special-purpose hardware
        • Substitution mechanisms
      • I.1.4 Applications
      • I.1.m Miscellaneous
    • I.2 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
      • I.2.0 General
        • Cognitive simulation
        • Philosophical foundations
      • I.2.1 Applications and Expert Systems (H.4, J)
        • Cartography
        • Games
        • Industrial automation
        • Law
        • Medicine and science
        • Natural language interfaces
        • Office automation
      • I.2.2 Automatic Programming (D.1.2, F.3.1)
        • Automatic analysis of algorithms
        • Program modification
        • Program synthesis
        • Program transformation
        • Program verification
      • I.2.3 Deduction and Theorem Proving
        • Answer/reason extraction
        • Deduction (e.g., natural, rule-based)
        • Logic programming
        • Mathematical induction
        • Metatheory
        • Nonmonotonic reasoning and belief revision
        • Resolution
        • Uncertainty, "fuzzy," and probabilistic reasoning
      • I.2.4 Knowledge Representation Formalisms and Methods
        • Frames and scripts
        • Predicate logic
        • Relation systems
        • Representation languages
        • Representations (procedural and rule-based)
        • Semantic networks
      • I.2.5 Programming Languages and Software (D.3.2)
        • Expert system tools and techniques
      • I.2.6 Learning (K.3.2)
        • Analogies
        • Concept learning
        • Connectionism and neural nets
        • Induction
        • Knowledge acquisition
        • Language acquisition
        • Parameter learning
      • I.2.7 Natural Language Processing
        • Discourse
        • Language generation
        • Language models
        • Language parsing and understanding
        • Machine translation
        • Speech recognition and synthesis
        • Text analysis
      • I.2.8 Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (F.2.2)
        • Backtracking
        • Dynamic programming
        • Graph and tree search strategies
        • Heuristic methods
        • Plan execution, formation, generation
      • I.2.9 Robotics
        • Manipulators
        • Propelling mechanisms
        • Sensors
      • I.2.10 Vision and Scene Understanding (I.4.8, I.5)
        • Architecture and control structures
        • Intensity, color, photometry and thresholding
        • Modeling and recovery of physical attributes
        • Motion
        • Perceptual reasoning
        • Representations, data structures, and transforms
        • Shape
        • Texture
      • I.2.11 Distributed Artificial Intelligence
        • Coherence and coordination
        • Languages and structures
      • I.2.m Miscellaneous
    • I.3 COMPUTER GRAPHICS
      • I.3.0 General
      • I.3.1 Hardware Architecture (B.4.2)
        • Graphics processors
        • Hardcopy devices
        • Input devices
        • Parallel processing
        • Raster display devices
        • Storage devices
        • Three-dimensional displays
        • Vector display devices
      • I.3.2 Graphics Systems (C.2.1, C.2.4, C.3)
        • Distributed/network graphics
        • Remote systems
        • Stand-alone systems
      • I.3.3 Picture/Image Generation
        • Antialiasing
        • Bitmap and framebuffer operations
        • Digitizing and scanning
        • Display algorithms
        • Line and curve generation
        • Viewing algorithms
      • I.3.4 Graphics Utilities
        • Application packages
        • Device drivers
        • Graphics editors
        • Graphics packages
        • Meta files
        • Paint systems
        • Picture description languages
        • Software support
        • Virtual device interfaces
      • I.3.5 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling
        • Boundary representations
        • Constructive solid geometry (CSG)
        • Curve, surface, solid, and object representations
        • Geometric algorithms, languages, and systems
        • Hierarchy and geometric transformations
        • Modeling packages
        • Object hierarchies
        • Physically based modeling
        • Splines
      • I.3.6 Methodology and Techniques
        • Device independence
        • Ergonomics
        • Graphics data structures and data types
        • Interaction techniques
        • Languages
        • Standards
      • I.3.7 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism
        • Animation
        • Color, shading, shadowing, and texture
        • Fractals
        • Hidden line/surface removal
        • Radiosity
        • Raytracing
        • Virtual reality
        • Visible line/surface algorithms
      • I.3.8 Applications
      • I.3.m Miscellaneous
    • I.4 IMAGE PROCESSING
      • I.4.0 General
        • Image displays
        • Image processing software
      • I.4.1 Digitization
        • Quantization
        • Sampling
        • Scanning
      • I.4.2 Compression (Coding) (E.4)
        • Approximate methods
        • Exact coding
      • I.4.3 Enhancement
        • Filtering
        • Geometric correction
        • Grayscale manipulation
        • Registration
        • Sharpening and deblurring
        • Smoothing
      • I.4.4 Restoration
        • Inverse filtering
        • Kalman filtering
        • Pseudoinverse restoration
        • Wiener filtering
      • I.4.5 Reconstruction
        • Series expansion methods
        • Summation methods
        • Transform methods
      • I.4.6 Segmentation
        • Edge and feature detection
        • Pixel classification
        • Region growing, partitioning
      • I.4.7 Feature Measurement
        • Invariants
        • Moments
        • Projections
        • Size and shape
        • Texture
      • I.4.8 Scene Analysis
        • Depth cues
        • Photometry
        • Range data
        • Sensor fusion
        • Stereo
        • Time-varying imagery
      • I.4.9 Applications
      • I.4.10 Image Representation
        • Hierarchical
        • Morphological
        • Multidimensional
        • Statistical
        • Volumetric
      • I.4.m Miscellaneous
    • I.5 PATTERN RECOGNITION
      • I.5.0 General
      • I.5.1 Models
        • Deterministic
        • Fuzzy set
        • Geometric
        • Neural nets
        • Statistical
        • Structural
      • I.5.2 Design Methodology
        • Classifier design and evaluation
        • Feature evaluation and selection
        • Pattern analysis
      • I.5.3 Clustering
        • Algorithms
        • Similarity measures
      • I.5.4 Applications
        • Computer vision
        • Signal processing
        • Text processing
        • Waveform analysis
      • I.5.5 Implementation (C.3)
        • Interactive systems
        • Special architectures
      • I.5.m Miscellaneous
    • I.6 SIMULATION AND MODELING (G.3)
      • I.6.0 General
      • I.6.1 Simulation Theory
        • Model classification
        • Systems theory
        • Types of simulation (continuous and discrete)*
      • I.6.2 Simulation Languages
      • I.6.3 Applications
      • I.6.4 Model Validation and Analysis
      • I.6.5 Model Development
        • Modeling methodologies
      • I.6.6 Simulation Output Analysis
      • I.6.7 Simulation Support Systems
        • Environments
      • I.6.8 Types of Simulation
        • Animation
        • Combined
        • Continuous
        • Discrete event
        • Distributed
        • Gaming
        • Monte Carlo
        • Parallel
        • Visual
      • I.6.m Miscellaneous
    • I.7 TEXT PROCESSING (H.4, H.5)
      • I.7.0 General
      • I.7.1 Text Editing
        • Languages
        • Spelling
      • I.7.2 Document Preparation
        • Desktop publishing
        • Format and notation
        • Hypertext/hypermedia
        • Languages and systems
        • Multi/mixed media
        • Photocomposition/typesetting
        • Standards
      • I.7.3 Index Generation
      • I.7.m Miscellaneous
    • I.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • J. Computer Applications
    • J.0 General
    • J.1 ADMINISTRATIVE DATA PROCESSING
      • Business
      • Education
      • Financial (e.g., EFTS)
      • Government
      • Law
      • Manufacturing
      • Marketing
      • Military
    • J.2 PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING
      • Aerospace
      • Astronomy
      • Chemistry
      • Earth and atmospheric sciences
      • Electronics
      • Engineering
      • Mathematics and statistics
      • Physics
    • J.3 LIFE AND MEDICAL SCIENCES
      • Biology
      • Health
      • Medical information systems
    • J.4 SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
      • Economics
      • Psychology
      • Sociology
    • J.5 ARTS AND HUMANITIES
      • Arts, fine and performing
      • Language translation
      • Linguistics
      • Literature
      • Music
    • J.6 COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING
      • Computer-aided design (CAD)
      • Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
    • J.7 COMPUTERS IN OTHER SYSTEMS (C.3)
      • Command and control
      • Consumer products
      • Industrial control
      • Military
      • Process control
      • Publishing
      • Real time
    • J.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • K. Computing Milieux
    • K.0 GENERAL
    • K.1 THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY
      • Markets
      • Standards
      • Statistics
      • Suppliers
    • K.2 HISTORY OF COMPUTING
      • Hardware
      • People
      • Software
      • Systems
      • Theory
    • K.3 COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION
      • K.3.0 General
      • K.3.1 Computer Uses in Education
        • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
        • Computer-managed instruction (CMI)
      • K.3.2 Computer and Information Science Education
        • Computer science education
        • Curriculum
        • Information systems education
        • Self-assessment
      • K.3.m Miscellaneous
        • Accreditation
        • Computer literacy
    • K.4 COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY
      • K.4.0 General
      • K.4.1 Public Policy Issues
        • Human safety
        • Privacy
        • Regulation
        • Transborder data flow
      • K.4.2 Social Issues
        • Abuse and crime involving computers
        • Employment
        • Handicapped persons/special needs
      • K.4.3 Organizational Impacts
      • K.4.m Miscellaneous
    • K.5 LEGAL ASPECTS OF COMPUTING
      • K.5.0 General
      • K.5.1 Software Protection
        • Copyrights
        • Patents
        • Proprietary rights
        • Trade secrets
      • K.5.2 Governmental Issues
        • Regulation
        • Taxation
      • K.5.m Miscellaneous
        • Contracts
        • Hardware patents
    • K.6 MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      • K.6.0 General
        • Economics
      • K.6.1 Project and People Management
        • Life cycle
        • Management techniques (e.g., PERT/CPM)
        • Staffing
        • Systems analysis and design
        • Systems development
        • Training
      • K.6.2 Installation Management
        • Benchmarks
        • Computer selection
        • Computing equipment management
        • Performance and usage measurement
        • Pricing and resource allocation
      • K.6.3 Software Management
        • Software development
        • Software maintenance
        • Software selection
      • K.6.4 System Management
        • Centralization/decentralization
        • Management audit
        • Quality assurance
      • K.6.5 Security and Protection (D.4.6, K.4.2)
        • Authentication
        • Insurance
        • Invasive software (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
        • Physical security
      • K.6.m Miscellaneous
        • Insurance*
        • Security*
    • K.7 THE COMPUTING PROFESSION
      • K.7.0 General
      • K.7.1 Occupations
      • K.7.2 Organizations
      • K.7.3 Testing, Certification, and Licensing
      • K.7.m Miscellaneous
        • Codes of good practice
        • Ethics
    • K.8 PERSONAL COMPUTING
      • Games*
      • K.8.0 General
        • Games
      • K.8.1 Application Packages
        • Data communications
        • Database processing
        • Graphics
        • Spreadsheets
        • Word processing
      • K.8.2 Hardware
      • K.8.3 Management/Maintenance
    • K.m MISCELLANEOUS

*Indicates that the classification is no longer be used as of January 1991, but that the item is still searchable for previously classified documents.