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The 1998 ACM Computing Classification System

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The ACM Computing Classification System (1998)

  • A. General Literature
    • A.0 GENERAL
      • Biographies/autobiographies
      • Conference proceedings
      • General literary works (e.g., fiction, plays)
    • A.1 INTRODUCTORY AND SURVEY
    • A.2 REFERENCE (e.g., dictionaries, encyclopedias, glossaries)
    • A.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • B. Hardware
    • B.0 GENERAL
    • B.1 CONTROL STRUCTURES AND MICROPROGRAMMING (D.3.2)
      • B.1.0 General
      • B.1.1 Control Design Styles
        • Hardwired control [**]
        • Microprogrammed logic arrays [**]
        • Writable control store [**]
      • B.1.2 Control Structure Performance Analysis and Design Aids
        • Automatic synthesis [**]
        • Formal models [**]
        • Simulation [**]
      • B.1.3 Control Structure Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance [**] (B.8)
        • Diagnostics [**]
        • Error-checking [**]
        • Redundant design [**]
        • Test generation [**]
      • B.1.4 Microprogram Design Aids (D.2.2, D.2.4, D.3.2, D.3.4)
        • Firmware engineering [**]
        • Languages and compilers
        • Machine-independent microcode generation [**]
        • Optimization
        • Verification [**]
      • B.1.5 Microcode Applications
        • Direct data manipulation [**]
        • Firmware support of operating systems/instruction sets [**]
        • Instruction set interpretation
        • Peripheral control [**]
        • Special-purpose [**]
      • B.1.m Miscellaneous
    • B.2 ARITHMETIC AND LOGIC STRUCTURES
      • B.2.0 General
      • B.2.1 Design Styles (C.1.1, C.1.2)
        • Calculator [**]
        • Parallel
        • Pipeline
      • B.2.2 Performance Analysis and Design Aids [**] (B.8)
        • Simulation [**]
        • Verification [**]
        • Worst-case analysis [**]
      • B.2.3 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance [**] (B.8)
        • Diagnostics [**]
        • Error-checking [**]
        • Redundant design [**]
        • Test generation [**]
      • B.2.4 High-Speed Arithmetic (NEW!)
        • Algorithms NEW!
        • Cost/performance NEW!
      • B.2.m Miscellaneous
    • B.3 MEMORY STRUCTURES
      • B.3.0 General
      • B.3.1 Semiconductor Memories (NEW!) (B.7.1)
        • Dynamic memory (DRAM) NEW!
        • Read-only memory (ROM) NEW!
        • Static memory (SRAM) NEW!
      • B.3.2 Design Styles (D.4.2)
        • Associative memories
        • Cache memories
        • Interleaved memories [**]
        • Mass storage (e.g., magnetic, optical, RAID)
        • Primary memory
        • Sequential-access memory [**]
        • Shared memory
        • Virtual memory
      • B.3.3 Performance Analysis and Design Aids [**] (B.8, C.4)
        • Formal models [**]
        • Simulation [**]
        • Worst-case analysis [**]
      • B.3.4 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance [**] (B.8)
        • Diagnostics [**]
        • Error-checking [**]
        • Redundant design [**]
        • Test generation [**]
      • B.3.m Miscellaneous
    • B.4 INPUT/OUTPUT AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS
      • B.4.0 General
      • B.4.1 Data Communications Devices
        • Processors [**]
        • Receivers (e.g., voice, data, image) [**]
        • Transmitters [**]
      • B.4.2 Input/Output Devices
        • Channels and controllers
        • Data terminals and printers
        • Image display
        • Voice
      • B.4.3 Interconnections (Subsystems)
        • Asynchronous/synchronous operation
        • Fiber optics
        • Interfaces
        • Parallel I/O NEW!
        • Physical structures (e.g., backplanes, cables, chip carriers) [**]
        • Topology (e.g., bus, point-to-point)
      • B.4.4 Performance Analysis and Design Aids [**] (B.8)
        • Formal models [**]
        • Simulation [**]
        • Verification [**]
        • Worst-case analysis [**]
      • B.4.5 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance [**] (B.8)
        • Built-in tests [**]
        • Diagnostics [**]
        • Error-checking [**]
        • Hardware reliability [**]
        • Redundant design [**]
        • Test generation [**]
      • B.4.m Miscellaneous
    • B.5 REGISTER-TRANSFER-LEVEL IMPLEMENTATION
      • B.5.0 General
      • B.5.1 Design
        • Arithmetic and logic units
        • Control design
        • Data-path design
        • Memory design
        • Styles (e.g., parallel, pipeline, special-purpose)
      • B.5.2 Design Aids
        • Automatic synthesis
        • Hardware description languages
        • Optimization
        • Simulation
        • Verification
      • B.5.3 Reliability and Testing [**] (B.8)
        • Built-in tests [**]
        • Error-checking [**]
        • Redundant design [**]
        • Test generation [**]
        • Testability [**]
      • B.5.m Miscellaneous
    • B.6 LOGIC DESIGN
      • B.6.0 General
      • B.6.1 Design Styles
        • Cellular arrays and automata
        • Combinational logic
        • Logic arrays
        • Memory control and access [**]
        • Memory used as logic [**]
        • Parallel circuits
        • Sequential circuits
      • B.6.2 Reliability and Testing [**] (B.8)
        • Built-in tests [**]
        • Error-checking [**]
        • Redundant design [**]
        • Test generation [**]
        • Testability [**]
      • B.6.3 Design Aids
        • Automatic synthesis
        • Hardware description languages
        • Optimization
        • Simulation
        • Switching theory
        • Verification
      • B.6.m Miscellaneous
    • B.7 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
      • B.7.0 General
      • B.7.1 Types and Design Styles
        • Advanced technologies
        • Algorithms implemented in hardware
        • Gate arrays
        • Input/output circuits
        • Memory technologies
        • Microprocessors and microcomputers
        • Standard cells [**]
        • VLSI (very large scale integration)
      • B.7.2 Design Aids
        • Graphics
        • Layout
        • Placement and routing
        • Simulation
        • Verification
      • B.7.3 Reliability and Testing [**] (B.8)
        • Built-in tests [**]
        • Error-checking [**]
        • Redundant design [**]
        • Test generation [**]
        • Testability [**]
      • B.7.m Miscellaneous
    • B.8 PERFORMANCE AND RELIABILITY (NEW!) (C.4)
      • B.8.0 General (NEW!)
      • B.8.1 Reliability, Testing, and Fault-Tolerance (NEW!)
      • B.8.2 Performance Analysis and Design Aids (NEW!)
      • B.8.m Miscellaneous (NEW!)
    • B.m MISCELLANEOUS
      • Design management
  • C. Computer Systems Organization
    • C.0 GENERAL
      • Hardware/software interfaces
      • Instruction set design (e.g., RISC, CISC, VLIW)
      • Modeling of computer architecture
      • System architectures
      • Systems specification methodology
    • C.1 PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURES
      • C.1.0 General
      • C.1.1 Single Data Stream Architectures
        • Multiple-instruction-stream, single-data-stream processors (MISD) [**]
        • Pipeline processors [**]
        • RISC/CISC, VLIW architectures NEW!
        • Single-instruction-stream, single-data-stream processors (SISD) [**]
        • Von Neumann architectures [**]
      • C.1.2 Multiple Data Stream Architectures (Multiprocessors)
        • Array and vector processors
        • Associative processors
        • Connection machines
        • Interconnection architectures (e.g., common bus, multiport memory, crossbar switch)
        • Multiple-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream processors (MIMD)
        • Parallel processors [**]
        • Pipeline processors [**]
        • Single-instruction-stream, multiple-data-stream processors (SIMD)
      • C.1.3 Other Architecture Styles
        • Adaptable architectures
        • Analog computers NEW!
        • Capability architectures [**]
        • Cellular architecture (e.g., mobile)
        • Data-flow architectures
        • Heterogeneous (hybrid) systems NEW!
        • High-level language architectures [**]
        • Neural nets
        • Pipeline processors NEW!
        • Stack-oriented processors [**]
      • C.1.4 Parallel Architectures (NEW!)
        • Distributed architectures NEW!
        • Mobile processors NEW!
      • C.1.m Miscellaneous
        • Analog computers [**]
        • Hybrid systems [**]
    • C.2 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
      • C.2.0 General
        • Data communications
        • Open Systems Interconnection reference model (OSI)
        • Security and protection (e.g., firewalls)
      • C.2.1 Network Architecture and Design
        • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) NEW!
        • Centralized networks [**]
        • Circuit-switching networks
        • Distributed networks
        • Frame relay networks NEW!
        • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
        • Network communications
        • Network topology
        • Packet-switching networks
        • Store and forward networks
        • Wireless communication NEW!
      • C.2.2 Network Protocols
        • Applications (SMTP, FTP, etc.) NEW!
        • Protocol architecture (OSI model)
        • Protocol verification
        • Routing protocols NEW!
      • C.2.3 Network Operations
        • Network management
        • Network monitoring
        • Public networks
      • C.2.4 Distributed Systems
        • Client/server NEW!
        • Distributed applications
        • Distributed databases
        • Network operating systems
      • C.2.5 Local and Wide-Area Networks
        • Access schemes
        • Buses
        • Ethernet (e.g., CSMA/CD) NEW!
        • High-speed (e.g., FDDI, fiber channel, ATM) NEW!
        • Internet (e.g., TCP/IP) NEW!
        • Token rings
      • C.2.6 Internetworking (NEW!) (C.2.2)
        • Routers NEW!
        • Standards (e.g., TCP/IP) NEW!
      • C.2.m Miscellaneous
    • C.3 SPECIAL-PURPOSE AND APPLICATION-BASED SYSTEMS (J.7)
      • Microprocessor/microcomputer applications
      • Process control systems
      • Real-time and embedded systems
      • Signal processing systems
      • Smartcards NEW!
    • C.4 PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS
      • Design studies
      • Fault tolerance NEW!
      • Measurement techniques
      • Modeling techniques
      • Performance attributes
      • Reliability, availability, and serviceability
    • C.5 COMPUTER SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
      • C.5.0 General
      • C.5.1 Large and Medium ("Mainframe") Computers
        • Super (very large) computers
      • C.5.2 Minicomputers [**]
      • C.5.3 Microcomputers
        • Microprocessors
        • Personal computers
        • Portable devices (e.g., laptops, personal digital assistants) NEW!
        • Workstations
      • C.5.4 VLSI Systems
      • C.5.5 Servers (NEW!)
      • C.5.m Miscellaneous
    • C.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • D. Software
    • D.0 GENERAL
    • D.1 PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES (E)
      • D.1.0 General
      • D.1.1 Applicative (Functional) Programming
      • D.1.2 Automatic Programming (I.2.2)
      • D.1.3 Concurrent Programming
        • Distributed programming
        • Parallel programming
      • D.1.4 Sequential Programming
      • D.1.5 Object-oriented Programming
      • D.1.6 Logic Programming
      • D.1.7 Visual Programming
      • D.1.m Miscellaneous
    • D.2 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING (K.6.3)
      • D.2.0 General (K.5.1)
        • Protection mechanisms
        • Standards
      • D.2.1 Requirements/Specifications (D.3.1)
        • Elicitation methods (e.g., rapid prototyping, interviews, JAD) NEW!
        • Languages
        • Methodologies (e.g., object-oriented, structured)
        • Tools
      • D.2.2 Design Tools and Techniques
        • Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
        • Decision tables
        • Evolutionary prototyping NEW!
        • Flow charts
        • Modules and interfaces
        • Object-oriented design methods NEW!
        • Petri nets
        • Programmer workbench [**]
        • Software libraries
        • State diagrams NEW!
        • Structured programming [**]
        • Top-down programming [**]
        • User interfaces
      • D.2.3 Coding Tools and Techniques
        • Object-oriented programming NEW!
        • Pretty printers
        • Program editors
        • Reentrant code [**]
        • Standards
        • Structured programming NEW!
        • Top-down programming NEW!
      • D.2.4 Software/Program Verification (F.3.1)
        • Assertion checkers
        • Class invariants NEW!
        • Correctness proofs
        • Formal methods NEW!
        • Model checking NEW!
        • Programming by contract NEW!
        • Reliability
        • Statistical methods NEW!
        • Validation
      • D.2.5 Testing and Debugging
        • Code inspections and walk-throughs
        • Debugging aids
        • Diagnostics
        • Distributed debugging NEW!
        • Dumps [**]
        • Error handling and recovery
        • Monitors
        • Symbolic execution
        • Testing tools (e.g., data generators, coverage testing)
        • Tracing
      • D.2.6 Programming Environments
        • Graphical environments NEW!
        • Integrated environments NEW!
        • Interactive environments
        • Programmer workbench NEW!
      • D.2.7 Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement
        • Corrections [**]
        • Documentation
        • Enhancement [**]
        • Extensibility [**]
        • Portability
        • Restructuring, reverse engineering, and reengineering
        • Version control
      • D.2.8 Metrics (D.4.8)
        • Complexity measures
        • Performance measures
        • Process metrics NEW!
        • Product metrics NEW!
        • Software science [**]
      • D.2.9 Management (K.6.3, K.6.4)
        • Copyrights [**]
        • Cost estimation
        • Life cycle
        • Productivity
        • Programming teams
        • Software configuration management
        • Software process models (e.g., CMM, ISO, PSP) NEW!
        • Software quality assurance (SQA)
        • Time estimation
      • D.2.10 Design [**] (D.2.2)
        • Methodologies [**]
        • Representation [**]
      • D.2.11 Software Architectures (NEW!)
        • Data abstraction NEW!
        • Domain-specific architectures NEW!
        • Information hiding NEW!
        • Languages (e.g., description, interconnection, definition) NEW!
        • Patterns (e.g., client/server, pipeline, blackboard) NEW!
      • D.2.12 Interoperability (NEW!)
        • Data mapping NEW!
        • Distributed objects NEW!
        • Interface definition languages NEW!
      • D.2.13 Reusable Software (NEW!)
        • Domain engineering NEW!
        • Reusable libraries NEW!
        • Reuse models NEW!
      • D.2.m Miscellaneous
        • Rapid prototyping [**]
        • Reusable software [**]
    • D.3 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
      • D.3.0 General
        • Standards
      • D.3.1 Formal Definitions and Theory (D.2.1, F.3.1, F.3.2, F.4.2, F.4.3)
        • Semantics
        • Syntax
      • D.3.2 Language Classifications
        • Applicative (functional) languages
        • Concurrent, distributed, and parallel languages
        • Constraint and logic languages NEW!
        • Data-flow languages
        • Design languages
        • Extensible languages
        • Macro and assembly languages
        • Microprogramming languages [**]
        • Multiparadigm languages NEW!
        • Nondeterministic languages [**]
        • Nonprocedural languages [**]
        • Object-oriented languages
        • Specialized application languages
        • Very high-level languages
      • D.3.3 Language Constructs and Features (E.2)
        • Abstract data types
        • Classes and objects NEW!
        • Concurrent programming structures
        • Constraints NEW!
        • Control structures
        • Coroutines
        • Data types and structures
        • Dynamic storage management
        • Frameworks NEW!
        • Inheritance NEW!
        • Input/output
        • Modules, packages
        • Patterns NEW!
        • Polymorphism NEW!
        • Procedures, functions, and subroutines
        • Recursion
      • D.3.4 Processors
        • Code generation
        • Compilers
        • Debuggers NEW!
        • Incremental compilers NEW!
        • Interpreters
        • Memory management (garbage collection) NEW!
        • Optimization
        • Parsing
        • Preprocessors
        • Retargetable compilers NEW!
        • Run-time environments
        • Translator writing systems and compiler generators
      • D.3.m Miscellaneous
    • D.4 OPERATING SYSTEMS (C)
      • D.4.0 General
      • D.4.1 Process Management
        • Concurrency
        • Deadlocks
        • Multiprocessing/multiprogramming/multitasking
        • Mutual exclusion
        • Scheduling
        • Synchronization
        • Threads NEW!
      • D.4.2 Storage Management
        • Allocation/deallocation strategies
        • Distributed memories
        • Garbage collection NEW!
        • Main memory
        • Secondary storage
        • Segmentation [**]
        • Storage hierarchies
        • Swapping [**]
        • Virtual memory
      • D.4.3 File Systems Management (E.5)
        • Access methods
        • Directory structures
        • Distributed file systems
        • File organization
        • Maintenance [**]
      • D.4.4 Communications Management (C.2)
        • Buffering
        • Input/output
        • Message sending
        • Network communication
        • Terminal management [**]
      • D.4.5 Reliability
        • Backup procedures
        • Checkpoint/restart
        • Fault-tolerance
        • Verification
      • D.4.6 Security and Protection (K.6.5)
        • Access controls
        • Authentication
        • Cryptographic controls
        • Information flow controls
        • Invasive software (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
        • Security kernels [**]
        • Verification [**]
      • D.4.7 Organization and Design
        • Batch processing systems [**]
        • Distributed systems
        • Hierarchical design [**]
        • Interactive systems
        • Real-time systems and embedded systems
      • D.4.8 Performance (C.4, D.2.8, I.6)
        • Measurements
        • Modeling and prediction
        • Monitors
        • Operational analysis
        • Queueing theory
        • Simulation
        • Stochastic analysis
      • D.4.9 Systems Programs and Utilities
        • Command and control languages
        • Linkers [**]
        • Loaders [**]
        • Window managers
      • D.4.m Miscellaneous
    • D.m MISCELLANEOUS
      • Software psychology [**]
  • E. Data
    • E.0 GENERAL
    • E.1 DATA STRUCTURES
      • Arrays
      • Distributed data structures NEW!
      • Graphs and networks
      • Lists, stacks, and queues
      • Records NEW!
      • Tables [**]
      • Trees
    • E.2 DATA STORAGE REPRESENTATIONS
      • Composite structures [**]
      • Contiguous representations [**]
      • Hash-table representations
      • Linked representations
      • Object representation NEW!
      • Primitive data items [**]
    • E.3 DATA ENCRYPTION
      • Code breaking NEW!
      • Data encryption standard (DES) [**]
      • Public key cryptosystems
      • Standards (e.g., DES, PGP, RSA) NEW!
    • E.4 CODING AND INFORMATION THEORY (H.1.1)
      • Data compaction and compression
      • Error control codes
      • Formal models of communication
      • Nonsecret encoding schemes [**]
    • E.5 FILES (D.4.3, F.2.2, H.2)
      • Backup/recovery
      • Optimization [**]
      • Organization/structure
      • Sorting/searching
    • E.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • F. Theory of Computation
    • F.0 GENERAL
    • F.1 COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES
      • F.1.0 General
      • F.1.1 Models of Computation (F.4.1)
        • Automata (e.g., finite, push-down, resource-bounded)
        • Bounded-action devices (e.g., Turing machines, random access machines)
        • Computability theory
        • Relations between models
        • Self-modifying machines (e.g., neural networks)
        • Unbounded-action devices (e.g., cellular automata, circuits, networks of machines)
      • F.1.2 Modes of Computation
        • Alternation and nondeterminism
        • Interactive and reactive computation
        • Online computation NEW!
        • Parallelism and concurrency
        • Probabilistic computation
        • Relations among modes [**]
        • Relativized computation
      • F.1.3 Complexity Measures and Classes (F.2)
        • Complexity hierarchies
        • Machine-independent complexity [**]
        • Reducibility and completeness
        • Relations among complexity classes
        • Relations among complexity measures
      • F.1.m Miscellaneous
    • F.2 ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY (B.6, B.7, F.1.3)
      • F.2.0 General
      • F.2.1 Numerical Algorithms and Problems (G.1, G.4, I.1)
        • Computation of transforms (e.g., fast Fourier transform)
        • Computations in finite fields
        • Computations on matrices
        • Computations on polynomials
        • Number-theoretic computations (e.g., factoring, primality testing)
      • F.2.2 Nonnumerical Algorithms and Problems (E.2, E.3, E.4, E.5, G.2, H.2, H.3)
        • Complexity of proof procedures
        • Computations on discrete structures
        • Geometrical problems and computations
        • Pattern matching
        • Routing and layout
        • Sequencing and scheduling
        • Sorting and searching
      • F.2.3 Tradeoffs between Complexity Measures (F.1.3)
      • F.2.m Miscellaneous
    • F.3 LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS
      • F.3.0 General
      • F.3.1 Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning about Programs (D.2.1, D.2.4, D.3.1, E.1)
        • Assertions
        • Invariants
        • Logics of programs
        • Mechanical verification
        • Pre- and post-conditions
        • Specification techniques
      • F.3.2 Semantics of Programming Languages (D.3.1)
        • Algebraic approaches to semantics
        • Denotational semantics
        • Operational semantics
        • Partial evaluation NEW!
        • Process models NEW!
        • Program analysis NEW!
      • F.3.3 Studies of Program Constructs (D.3.2, D.3.3)
        • Control primitives
        • Functional constructs
        • Object-oriented constructs NEW!
        • Program and recursion schemes
        • Type structure
      • F.3.m Miscellaneous
    • F.4 MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND FORMAL LANGUAGES
      • F.4.0 General
      • F.4.1 Mathematical Logic (F.1.1, I.2.2, I.2.3, I.2.4)
        • Computability theory
        • Computational logic
        • Lambda calculus and related systems
        • Logic and constraint programming
        • Mechanical theorem proving
        • Modal logic NEW!
        • Model theory
        • Proof theory
        • Recursive function theory
        • Set theory NEW!
        • Temporal logic NEW!
      • F.4.2 Grammars and Other Rewriting Systems (D.3.1)
        • Decision problems
        • Grammar types (e.g., context-free, context-sensitive)
        • Parallel rewriting systems (e.g., developmental systems, L-systems)
        • Parsing
        • Thue systems
      • F.4.3 Formal Languages (D.3.1)
        • Algebraic language theory
        • Classes defined by grammars or automata (e.g., context-free languages, regular sets, recursive sets)
        • Classes defined by resource-bounded automata [**]
        • Decision problems
        • Operations on languages
      • F.4.m Miscellaneous
    • F.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • G. Mathematics of Computing
    • G.0 GENERAL
    • G.1 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
      • G.1.0 General
        • Computer arithmetic
        • Conditioning (and ill-conditioning)
        • Error analysis
        • Interval arithmetic NEW!
        • Multiple precision arithmetic NEW!
        • Numerical algorithms
        • Parallel algorithms
        • Stability (and instability)
      • G.1.1 Interpolation (I.3.5, I.3.7)
        • Difference formulas [**]
        • Extrapolation
        • Interpolation formulas
        • Smoothing
        • Spline and piecewise polynomial interpolation
      • G.1.2 Approximation
        • Approximation of surfaces and contours NEW!
        • Chebyshev approximation and theory
        • Elementary function approximation
        • Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) NEW!
        • Least squares approximation
        • Linear approximation
        • Minimax approximation and algorithms
        • Nonlinear approximation
        • Rational approximation
        • Special function approximations NEW!
        • Spline and piecewise polynomial approximation
        • Wavelets and fractals NEW!
      • G.1.3 Numerical Linear Algebra
        • Conditioning
        • Determinants [**]
        • Eigenvalues and eigenvectors (direct and iterative methods)
        • Error analysis
        • Linear systems (direct and iterative methods)
        • Matrix inversion
        • Pseudoinverses [**]
        • Singular value decomposition NEW!
        • Sparse, structured, and very large systems (direct and iterative methods)
      • G.1.4 Quadrature and Numerical Differentiation (F.2.1)
        • Adaptive and iterative quadrature
        • Automatic differentiation NEW!
        • Equal interval integration [**]
        • Error analysis
        • Finite difference methods
        • Gaussian quadrature
        • Iterative methods
        • Multidimensional (multiple) quadrature
      • G.1.5 Roots of Nonlinear Equations
        • Continuation (homotopy) methods NEW!
        • Convergence
        • Error analysis
        • Iterative methods
        • Polynomials, methods for
        • Systems of equations
      • G.1.6 Optimization
        • Constrained optimization
        • Convex programming NEW!
        • Global optimization NEW!
        • Gradient methods
        • Integer programming
        • Least squares methods
        • Linear programming
        • Nonlinear programming
        • Quadratic programming methods NEW!
        • Simulated annealing NEW!
        • Stochastic programming NEW!
        • Unconstrained optimization NEW!
      • G.1.7 Ordinary Differential Equations
        • Boundary value problems
        • Chaotic systems NEW!
        • Convergence and stability
        • Differential-algebraic equations NEW!
        • Error analysis
        • Finite difference methods NEW!
        • Initial value problems
        • Multistep and multivalue methods
        • One-step (single step) methods
        • Stiff equations
      • G.1.8 Partial Differential Equations
        • Domain decomposition methods NEW!
        • Elliptic equations
        • Finite difference methods
        • Finite element methods
        • Finite volume methods NEW!
        • Hyperbolic equations
        • Inverse problems NEW!
        • Iterative solution techniques NEW!
        • Method of lines
        • Multigrid and multilevel methods NEW!
        • Parabolic equations
        • Spectral methods NEW!
      • G.1.9 Integral Equations
        • Delay equations NEW!
        • Fredholm equations
        • Integro-differential equations
        • Volterra equations
      • G.1.10 Applications NEW!
      • G.1.m Miscellaneous
    • G.2 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
      • G.2.0 General
      • G.2.1 Combinatorics (F.2.2)
        • Combinatorial algorithms
        • Counting problems
        • Generating functions
        • Permutations and combinations
        • Recurrences and difference equations
      • G.2.2 Graph Theory (F.2.2)
        • Graph algorithms
        • Graph labeling NEW!
        • Hypergraphs NEW!
        • Network problems
        • Path and circuit problems
        • Trees
      • G.2.3 Applications (NEW!)
      • G.2.m Miscellaneous
    • G.3 PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
      • Contingency table analysis NEW!
      • Correlation and regression analysis NEW!
      • Distribution functions NEW!
      • Experimental design NEW!
      • Markov processes NEW!
      • Multivariate statistics NEW!
      • Nonparametric statistics NEW!
      • Probabilistic algorithms (including Monte Carlo)
      • Queueing theory NEW!
      • Random number generation
      • Reliability and life testing NEW!
      • Renewal theory NEW!
      • Robust regression NEW!
      • Statistical computing
      • Statistical software
      • Stochastic processes NEW!
      • Survival analysis NEW!
      • Time series analysis NEW!
    • G.4 MATHEMATICAL SOFTWARE
      • Algorithm design and analysis
      • Certification and testing
      • Documentation NEW!
      • Efficiency
      • Parallel and vector implementations NEW!
      • Portability [**]
      • Reliability and robustness
      • User interfaces NEW!
      • Verification [**]
    • G.m MISCELLANEOUS
      • Queueing theory [**]
  • H. Information Systems
    • H.0 GENERAL
    • H.1 MODELS AND PRINCIPLES
      • H.1.0 General
      • H.1.1 Systems and Information Theory (E.4)
        • General systems theory
        • Information theory
        • Value of information
      • H.1.2 User/Machine Systems
        • Human factors
        • Human information processing
        • Software psychology NEW!
      • H.1.m Miscellaneous
    • H.2 DATABASE MANAGEMENT (E.5)
      • H.2.0 General
        • Security, integrity, and protection [**]
      • H.2.1 Logical Design
        • Data models
        • Normal forms
        • Schema and subschema
      • H.2.2 Physical Design
        • Access methods
        • Deadlock avoidance
        • Recovery and restart
      • H.2.3 Languages (D.3.2)
        • Data description languages (DDL)
        • Data manipulation languages (DML)
        • Database (persistent) programming languages
        • Query languages
        • Report writers
      • H.2.4 Systems
        • Concurrency
        • Distributed databases
        • Multimedia databases NEW!
        • Object-oriented databases NEW!
        • Parallel databases NEW!
        • Query processing
        • Relational databases NEW!
        • Rule-based databases NEW!
        • Textual databases NEW!
        • Transaction processing
      • H.2.5 Heterogeneous Databases
        • Data translation [**]
        • Program translation [**]
      • H.2.6 Database Machines
      • H.2.7 Database Administration
        • Data dictionary/directory
        • Data warehouse and repository NEW!
        • Logging and recovery
        • Security, integrity, and protection NEW!
      • H.2.8 Database Applications
        • Data mining NEW!
        • Image databases NEW!
        • Scientific databases NEW!
        • Spatial databases and GIS NEW!
        • Statistical databases NEW!
      • H.2.m Miscellaneous
    • H.3 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL
      • H.3.0 General
      • H.3.1 Content Analysis and Indexing
        • Abstracting methods
        • Dictionaries
        • Indexing methods
        • Linguistic processing
        • Thesauruses
      • H.3.2 Information Storage
        • File organization
        • Record classification [**]
      • H.3.3 Information Search and Retrieval
        • Clustering
        • Information filtering NEW!
        • Query formulation
        • Relevance feedback NEW!
        • Retrieval models
        • Search process
        • Selection process
      • H.3.4 Systems and Software
        • Current awareness systems (selective dissemination of information--SDI) [**]
        • Distributed systems NEW!
        • Information networks
        • Performance evaluation (efficiency and effectiveness) NEW!
        • Question-answering (fact retrieval) systems [**]
        • User profiles and alert services NEW!
      • H.3.5 Online Information Services
        • Commercial services NEW!
        • Data sharing
        • Web-based services NEW!
      • H.3.6 Library Automation
        • Large text archives
      • H.3.7 Digital Libraries (NEW!)
        • Collection NEW!
        • Dissemination NEW!
        • Standards NEW!
        • Systems issues NEW!
        • User issues NEW!
      • H.3.m Miscellaneous
    • H.4 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS
      • H.4.0 General
      • H.4.1 Office Automation (I.7)
        • Desktop publishing NEW!
        • Equipment [**]
        • Groupware NEW!
        • Spreadsheets
        • Time management (e.g., calendars, schedules)
        • Word processing
        • Workflow management NEW!
      • H.4.2 Types of Systems
        • Decision support (e.g., MIS)
        • Logistics
      • H.4.3 Communications Applications
        • Bulletin boards
        • Computer conferencing, teleconferencing, and videoconferencing
        • Electronic mail
        • Information browsers NEW!
        • Videotex
      • H.4.m Miscellaneous
    • H.5 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION (e.g., HCI) (I.7)
      • H.5.0 General
      • H.5.1 Multimedia Information Systems
        • Animations
        • Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities
        • Audio input/output
        • Evaluation/methodology
        • Hypertext navigation and maps [**]
        • Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI)
      • H.5.2 User Interfaces (D.2.2, H.1.2, I.3.6)
        • Auditory (non-speech) feedback NEW!
        • Benchmarking NEW!
        • Ergonomics
        • Evaluation/methodology
        • Graphical user interfaces (GUI) NEW!
        • Haptic I/O NEW!
        • Input devices and strategies (e.g., mouse, touchscreen)
        • Interaction styles (e.g., commands, menus, forms, direct manipulation)
        • Natural language NEW!
        • Prototyping NEW!
        • Screen design (e.g., text, graphics, color)
        • Standardization NEW!
        • Style guides NEW!
        • Theory and methods
        • Training, help, and documentation
        • User-centered design NEW!
        • User interface management systems (UIMS)
        • Voice I/O NEW!
        • Windowing systems
      • H.5.3 Group and Organization Interfaces
        • Asynchronous interaction
        • Collaborative computing NEW!
        • Computer-supported cooperative work NEW!
        • Evaluation/methodology
        • Organizational design
        • Synchronous interaction
        • Theory and models
        • Web-based interaction
      • H.5.4 Hypertext/Hypermedia (NEW!) (I.7, J.7)
        • Architectures NEW!
        • Navigation NEW!
        • Theory NEW!
        • User issues NEW!
      • H.5.5 Sound and Music Computing (NEW!) (J.5)
        • Methodologies and techniques NEW!
        • Modeling NEW!
        • Signal analysis, synthesis, and processing NEW!
        • Systems NEW!
      • H.5.m Miscellaneous (NEW!)
    • H.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • I. Computing Methodologies
    • I.0 GENERAL
    • I.1 SYMBOLIC AND ALGEBRAIC MANIPULATION
      • I.1.0 General
      • I.1.1 Expressions and Their Representation (E.1, E.2)
        • Representations (general and polynomial)
        • Simplification of expressions
      • I.1.2 Algorithms (F.2.1, F.2.2)
        • Algebraic algorithms
        • Analysis of algorithms
        • Nonalgebraic algorithms
      • I.1.3 Languages and Systems (D.3.2, D.3.3, F.2.2)
        • Evaluation strategies
        • Nonprocedural languages [**]
        • Special-purpose algebraic systems
        • Special-purpose hardware [**]
        • Substitution mechanisms [**]
      • I.1.4 Applications
      • I.1.m Miscellaneous
    • I.2 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
      • I.2.0 General
        • Cognitive simulation
        • Philosophical foundations
      • I.2.1 Applications and Expert Systems (H.4, J)
        • Cartography
        • Games
        • Industrial automation
        • Law
        • Medicine and science
        • Natural language interfaces
        • Office automation
      • I.2.2 Automatic Programming (D.1.2, F.3.1, F.4.1)
        • Automatic analysis of algorithms
        • Program modification
        • Program synthesis
        • Program transformation
        • Program verification
      • I.2.3 Deduction and Theorem Proving (F.4.1)
        • Answer/reason extraction
        • Deduction (e.g., natural, rule-based)
        • Inference engines NEW!
        • Logic programming
        • Mathematical induction
        • Metatheory [**]
        • Nonmonotonic reasoning and belief revision
        • Resolution
        • Uncertainty, ``fuzzy,'' and probabilistic reasoning
      • I.2.4 Knowledge Representation Formalisms and Methods (F.4.1)
        • Frames and scripts
        • Modal logic NEW!
        • Predicate logic
        • Relation systems
        • Representation languages
        • Representations (procedural and rule-based)
        • Semantic networks
        • Temporal logic NEW!
      • I.2.5 Programming Languages and Software (D.3.2)
        • Expert system tools and techniques
      • I.2.6 Learning (K.3.2)
        • Analogies
        • Concept learning
        • Connectionism and neural nets
        • Induction
        • Knowledge acquisition
        • Language acquisition
        • Parameter learning
      • I.2.7 Natural Language Processing
        • Discourse
        • Language generation
        • Language models
        • Language parsing and understanding
        • Machine translation
        • Speech recognition and synthesis
        • Text analysis
      • I.2.8 Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (F.2.2)
        • Backtracking
        • Control theory NEW!
        • Dynamic programming
        • Graph and tree search strategies
        • Heuristic methods
        • Plan execution, formation, and generation
        • Scheduling NEW!
      • I.2.9 Robotics
        • Autonomous vehicles NEW!
        • Commercial robots and applications NEW!
        • Kinematics and dynamics NEW!
        • Manipulators
        • Operator interfaces NEW!
        • Propelling mechanisms
        • Sensors
        • Workcell organization and planning NEW!
      • I.2.10 Vision and Scene Understanding (I.4.8, I.5)
        • 3D/stereo scene analysis NEW!
        • Architecture and control structures [**]
        • Intensity, color, photometry, and thresholding
        • Modeling and recovery of physical attributes
        • Motion
        • Perceptual reasoning
        • Representations, data structures, and transforms
        • Shape
        • Texture
        • Video analysis NEW!
      • I.2.11 Distributed Artificial Intelligence
        • Coherence and coordination
        • Intelligent agents NEW!
        • Languages and structures
        • Multiagent systems NEW!
      • I.2.m Miscellaneous
    • I.3 COMPUTER GRAPHICS
      • I.3.0 General
      • I.3.1 Hardware Architecture (B.4.2)
        • Graphics processors
        • Hardcopy devices [**]
        • Input devices
        • Parallel processing
        • Raster display devices
        • Storage devices [**]
        • Three-dimensional displays [**]
        • Vector display devices [**]
      • I.3.2 Graphics Systems (C.2.1, C.2.4, C.3)
        • Distributed/network graphics
        • Remote systems [**]
        • Stand-alone systems [**]
      • I.3.3 Picture/Image Generation
        • Antialiasing [**]
        • Bitmap and framebuffer operations
        • Digitizing and scanning
        • Display algorithms
        • Line and curve generation
        • Viewing algorithms
      • I.3.4 Graphics Utilities
        • Application packages
        • Device drivers [**]
        • Graphics editors
        • Graphics packages
        • Meta files [**]
        • Paint systems
        • Picture description languages [**]
        • Software support
        • Virtual device interfaces
      • I.3.5 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling
        • Boundary representations
        • Constructive solid geometry (CSG) [**]
        • Curve, surface, solid, and object representations
        • Geometric algorithms, languages, and systems
        • Hierarchy and geometric transformations
        • Modeling packages
        • Object hierarchies
        • Physically based modeling
        • Splines
      • I.3.6 Methodology and Techniques
        • Device independence [**]
        • Ergonomics
        • Graphics data structures and data types
        • Interaction techniques
        • Languages
        • Standards
      • I.3.7 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism
        • Animation
        • Color, shading, shadowing, and texture
        • Fractals
        • Hidden line/surface removal
        • Radiosity
        • Raytracing
        • Virtual reality
        • Visible line/surface algorithms
      • I.3.8 Applications
      • I.3.m Miscellaneous
    • I.4 IMAGE PROCESSING AND COMPUTER VISION
      • I.4.0 General
        • Image displays
        • Image processing software
      • I.4.1 Digitization and Image Capture
        • Camera calibration NEW!
        • Imaging geometry NEW!
        • Quantization
        • Radiometry NEW!
        • Reflectance NEW!
        • Sampling
        • Scanning
      • I.4.2 Compression (Coding) (E.4)
        • Approximate methods
        • Exact coding [**]
      • I.4.3 Enhancement
        • Filtering
        • Geometric correction
        • Grayscale manipulation
        • Registration
        • Sharpening and deblurring [**]
        • Smoothing
      • I.4.4 Restoration
        • Inverse filtering [**]
        • Kalman filtering
        • Pseudoinverse restoration [**]
        • Wiener filtering [**]
      • I.4.5 Reconstruction
        • Series expansion methods
        • Summation methods [**]
        • Transform methods
      • I.4.6 Segmentation
        • Edge and feature detection
        • Pixel classification
        • Region growing, partitioning
        • Relaxation NEW!
      • I.4.7 Feature Measurement
        • Feature representation NEW!
        • Invariants
        • Moments
        • Projections
        • Size and shape
        • Texture
      • I.4.8 Scene Analysis
        • Color NEW!
        • Depth cues
        • Motion NEW!
        • Object recognition NEW!
        • Photometry
        • Range data
        • Sensor fusion
        • Shading NEW!
        • Shape NEW!
        • Stereo
        • Surface fitting NEW!
        • Time-varying imagery
        • Tracking NEW!
      • I.4.9 Applications
      • I.4.10 Image Representation
        • Hierarchical
        • Morphological
        • Multidimensional
        • Statistical
        • Volumetric
      • I.4.m Miscellaneous
    • I.5 PATTERN RECOGNITION
      • I.5.0 General
      • I.5.1 Models
        • Deterministic [**]
        • Fuzzy set
        • Geometric
        • Neural nets
        • Statistical
        • Structural
      • I.5.2 Design Methodology
        • Classifier design and evaluation
        • Feature evaluation and selection
        • Pattern analysis
      • I.5.3 Clustering
        • Algorithms
        • Similarity measures
      • I.5.4 Applications
        • Computer vision
        • Signal processing
        • Text processing
        • Waveform analysis
      • I.5.5 Implementation (C.3)
        • Interactive systems
        • Special architectures
      • I.5.m Miscellaneous
    • I.6 SIMULATION AND MODELING (G.3)
      • I.6.0 General
      • I.6.1 Simulation Theory
        • Model classification
        • Systems theory
        • Types of simulation (continuous and discrete) [*]
      • I.6.2 Simulation Languages
      • I.6.3 Applications
      • I.6.4 Model Validation and Analysis
      • I.6.5 Model Development
        • Modeling methodologies
      • I.6.6 Simulation Output Analysis
      • I.6.7 Simulation Support Systems
        • Environments
      • I.6.8 Types of Simulation
        • Animation
        • Combined
        • Continuous
        • Discrete event
        • Distributed
        • Gaming
        • Monte Carlo
        • Parallel
        • Visual
      • I.6.m Miscellaneous
    • I.7 DOCUMENT AND TEXT PROCESSING (H.4, H.5)
      • I.7.0 General
      • I.7.1 Document and Text Editing
        • Document management NEW!
        • Languages [**]
        • Spelling [**]
        • Version control NEW!
      • I.7.2 Document Preparation
        • Desktop publishing
        • Format and notation
        • Hypertext/hypermedia
        • Index generation NEW!
        • Languages and systems
        • Markup languages NEW!
        • Multi/mixed media
        • Photocomposition/typesetting
        • Scripting languages NEW!
        • Standards
      • I.7.3 Index Generation [**]
      • I.7.4 Electronic Publishing NEW! (H.5.4, J.7)
      • I.7.5 Document Capture NEW!(I.4.1)
        • Document analysis NEW!
        • Graphics recognition and interpretation NEW!
        • Optical character recognition (OCR) NEW!
        • Scanning NEW!
      • I.7.m Miscellaneous
    • I.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • J. Computer Applications
    • J.0 GENERAL
    • J.1 ADMINISTRATIVE DATA PROCESSING
      • Business
      • Education
      • Financial (e.g., EFTS)
      • Government
      • Law
      • Manufacturing
      • Marketing
      • Military
    • J.2 PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING
      • Aerospace
      • Archaeology NEW!
      • Astronomy
      • Chemistry
      • Earth and atmospheric sciences
      • Electronics
      • Engineering
      • Mathematics and statistics
      • Physics
    • J.3 LIFE AND MEDICAL SCIENCES
      • Biology and genetics
      • Health
      • Medical information systems
    • J.4 SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
      • Economics
      • Psychology
      • Sociology
    • J.5 ARTS AND HUMANITIES
      • Architecture NEW!
      • Arts, fine and performing [**]
      • Fine arts NEW!
      • Language translation
      • Linguistics
      • Literature
      • Music [**]
      • Performing arts (e.g., dance, music) NEW!
    • J.6 COMPUTER-AIDED ENGINEERING
      • Computer-aided design (CAD)
      • Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
    • J.7 COMPUTERS IN OTHER SYSTEMS (C.3)
      • Command and control
      • Consumer products
      • Industrial control
      • Military
      • Process control
      • Publishing
      • Real time
    • J.m MISCELLANEOUS
  • K. Computing Milieux
    • K.0 GENERAL
    • K.1 THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY
      • Markets
      • Standards
      • Statistics
      • Suppliers
    • K.2 HISTORY OF COMPUTING
      • Hardware
      • People
      • Software
      • Systems
      • Theory
    • K.3 COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION
      • K.3.0 General
      • K.3.1 Computer Uses in Education
        • Collaborative learning NEW!
        • Computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
        • Computer-managed instruction (CMI)
        • Distance learning NEW!
      • K.3.2 Computer and Information Science Education
        • Accreditation NEW!
        • Computer science education
        • Curriculum
        • Information systems education
        • Literacy NEW!
        • Self-assessment
      • K.3.m Miscellaneous
        • Accreditation [**]
        • Computer literacy [**]
    • K.4 COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY
      • K.4.0 General
      • K.4.1 Public Policy Issues
        • Abuse and crime involving computers NEW!
        • Computer-related health issues NEW!
        • Ethics NEW!
        • Human safety
        • Intellectual property rights NEW!
        • Privacy
        • Regulation
        • Transborder data flow
        • Use/abuse of power NEW!
      • K.4.2 Social Issues
        • Abuse and crime involving computers [**]
        • Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities NEW!
        • Employment
        • Handicapped persons/special needs [**]
      • K.4.3 Organizational Impacts
        • Automation NEW!
        • Computer-supported collaborative work NEW!
        • Employment NEW!
        • Reengineering NEW!
      • K.4.4 Electronic Commerce (NEW!) (J.1)
        • Cybercash, digital cash NEW!
        • Distributed commercial transactions NEW!
        • Electronic data interchange (EDI) NEW!
        • Intellectual property NEW!
        • Payment schemes NEW!
        • Security NEW!
      • K.4.m Miscellaneous
    • K.5 LEGAL ASPECTS OF COMPUTING
      • K.5.0 General
      • K.5.1 Hardware/Software Protection
        • Copyrights
        • Licensing NEW!
        • Patents
        • Proprietary rights
        • Trade secrets [**]
      • K.5.2 Governmental Issues
        • Censorship NEW!
        • Regulation
        • Taxation
      • K.5.m Miscellaneous
        • Contracts [**]
        • Hardware patents [**]
    • K.6 MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      • K.6.0 General
        • Economics
      • K.6.1 Project and People Management
        • Life cycle
        • Management techniques (e.g., PERT/CPM)
        • Staffing
        • Strategic information systems planning NEW!
        • Systems analysis and design
        • Systems development
        • Training
      • K.6.2 Installation Management
        • Benchmarks
        • Computer selection
        • Computing equipment management
        • Performance and usage measurement
        • Pricing and resource allocation
      • K.6.3 Software Management (D.2.9)
        • Software development
        • Software maintenance
        • Software process NEW!
        • Software selection
      • K.6.4 System Management
        • Centralization/decentralization
        • Management audit
        • Quality assurance
      • K.6.5 Security and Protection (D.4.6, K.4.2)
        • Authentication
        • Insurance [**]
        • Invasive software (e.g., viruses, worms, Trojan horses)
        • Physical security [**]
        • Unauthorized access (e.g., hacking, phreaking) NEW!
      • K.6.m Miscellaneous
        • Insurance [*]
        • Security [*]
    • K.7 THE COMPUTING PROFESSION
      • K.7.0 General
      • K.7.1 Occupations
      • K.7.2 Organizations
      • K.7.3 Testing, Certification, and Licensing
      • K.7.4 Professional Ethics (NEW!) (K.4)
        • Codes of ethics NEW!
        • Codes of good practice NEW!
        • Ethical dilemmas NEW!
      • K.7.m Miscellaneous
        • Codes of good practice [**]
        • Ethics [**]
    • K.8 PERSONAL COMPUTING
      • Games [*]
      • K.8.0 General
        • Games
      • K.8.1 Application Packages
        • Data communications
        • Database processing
        • Freeware/shareware NEW!
        • Graphics
        • Spreadsheets
        • Word processing
      • K.8.2 Hardware
      • K.8.3 Management/Maintenance
      • K.8.m Miscellaneous (NEW!)
    • K.m MISCELLANEOUS

* Indicates that the classification is no longer used as of January 1991, but that the item is still searchable for previously classified documents.
** Indicates that the classification is no longer used as of January 1998, but that the item is still searchable for previously classified documents.