Two Catalysts for Qualitative Change

Richard Snodgrass
October 1,1999

Location  

  •     City and State, 2000 BCE
  •     Longitude, 1773 CE
  •     GPS + cell phone, 1999 CE

Confluences               

  •     Underlying technologies
  •     Highly accurate atomic clocks
  •     Geosynchronous satellites
  •     Advances in micro-circuitry
  •     Proliferation of cell phones
  •     Demonstrated need
  •     Catalyst: companies able to produce in quantity at low price
  •     Qualitative change

The Vision

The ACM Computing Portal

A web-based repository of bibliographic information    

  • contains information on all papers and books in the computing literature

  • contains a pointer to the digitized version, if available

Objectives

  •     Qualitatively increase the effectiveness of scientific research into computing
  •     Continue to place ACM as the premier scientific and educational organization for computing
  •     Increase service of ACM and the SIGs to the scientific community
  •     Provide a concrete illustration of the scope of computer science

Presentation

    Components

  •     Bibliographic Entries
  •     Abstracts and Keywords
  •     Full Text
  •     Citation Linking
  •     Demonstratio
  •     Realizing the Computing Portal
  •     Revisit the components
  •     The Next Step

Step 1: Bibliographic Entries

  •     Collect all bibliographic entries from all computer science journals, conferences, workshops, technical bulletins, and books.
  •     Over the period from 1940 to 2000
  •     Approximately 1M entries
  •     Provide free searching on the web.
  •     Provide citations in multiple formats: HTML, BiBTeX, refer, Word, ...

Step 2: Abstracts and Keywords

  •     Collect keywords, and later, abstracts, for all entries.
  •     Copyright restrictions on some abstracts?

Step 3: Full Text and Images

Collect full text of each available paper and book for

  •     use in searching
  •     to develop classification maps and lexicons
  •     other analyses

Step 4: Citation Linking

  •     Start with full text of paper's bibliography.
  •     Out linking: identify bibliographic entry of papers referenced by the paper
  •     In linking: identify bibliographic entries of papers referencing the paper
  •     Use for citation analysis, knowledge diffusion studies

Demonstration

Papers with wavelet:

Stage 1: Bibliographic Entries

Propose that each SIG be responsible for collecting
relevant entries.

  • ensure completeness, based on SIG interests
  • reduce overlap between SIGs
  • ensure correctness

Software for data entry, validation, and conversion provided to SIGs

1M entries / 36 SIGs = 30K entries per SIG

  • e.g., SIGMOD: approximately 50K entries

Many resources

  • DBLP: 130K entries
  • Propose that ACM donate the ACM Guide to Computing Literature: 200K entries
  • Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies: 930K entries

Stage 2: Keywords and Abstracts

  • Propose that SIGs collect these.
  • May need copyright permission, negotiated by ACM HQ
  • Collection of CS bibliographies has 100K abstracts

Stage 3: Full Text

Propose SIGs fund populating full ACM Digital Library.

  • PDF files containing encapsulated TIFF and OCRed full text
  • 99% accuracy
  • $1.25 per page.

Could go to SGML or XML, 99.9% accuracy: $8-$10 per page.

Populating the ACM DL

  •  Journals: 130K pages: $200K
  • Conference and workshop proceedings: 500K pages: $600K
  • Newsletters: 200K pages: $250K
  • Total: 850K pages at $1050K
  • $30K per SIG

Stage 3: Full Text, cont.

ACM papers: 850K pages, or about 50K papers

  • This represents 5% of total of 1M papers.

ACM books: obtain full text from publishers.

For remaining conference proceedings,

  • Offer full CD Rom package at cost in exchange for inclusion in CD Rom and use of full text for searching.
  • Pay for digitization out of conference profits
  • e.g., IEEE ICDE: 600 pages x 17 years x $1.25 = $13K.
  • SIGs pay for integration: $0.25 - $0.50 per page.

Stage 3: Journal Papers

For other journals,

  • Same offer as with conferences
  • Or, offer URL into their DL in exchange for full text, only for searching
  • ACM Computing Portal provides valuable entry into their DL, enhancing their revenue stream.

For other books, make same offer.

Open Architecture

  • Free searching via web interface, including full text search, at ACM site and SIG portals
  • Bibliographic data available for other search engines
  • As much PDF available for free as possible
  • Encourage digitization of corpus

Summary

The ACM Computing Portal

  • Free searchable access to the entire computer science corpus
  • SIG-specific portals
  • Fully populated ACM DL
  • Inclusion of or portal to other DL resources
  • Capability to purchase papers and to register queries
  • Possibly ancillary SIG-provided benefits, such as CD-ROMs

SGB Portal Committee

  • Rick Snodgrass (University of Arizona, CS), chair
  • Steve Cunningham (Cal State University-Stanislaus, CS)
  • Mary Fernandez (AT&T Labs)
  • Carol Hutchins (Courant Institute of Math. Sci. Library)
  • Bob Krovetz (NEC Research Institute)
  • Michael Ley (University of Trier, CS)
  • Andreas Paepcke (Stanford University)
  • Kathy Preas (KP Pubs on CDROM)
  • Charles Viles (Univ. of North Carolina, Info and Lib Sci)

Individual SIG Commitments

  • Collect and capture SIG-relevant bibliographic entries, abstracts, and keywords, in appropriate format.

Allocate funds to populate the ACM DL: journals, conference and workshop proceedings, SIG newsletter.

  • Roughly $30K for each SIG
  • SIGDA matching funds: $50K

Negotiate with steering committees of associated conferences and workshops.

ACM HQ Commitments

  • Donate entries from ACM Guide to Computing Literature.
  • Negotiate cross-use agreements with associated societies.
  • Acquire full text of books copyrighted by ACM.
  • Provide hardware and software to host CSP.
  • Provide staff to manage CSP, with content provided by SIGs.

ACM HQ Opportunities

  • Integrate CSP with CoRR
  • Provide print and CD-ROM versions of the expanded ACM Guide to Computing Literature
  • Fully populated DL
  • Increased visibility of ACM

Confluences

Underlying technologies

  • Inexpensive scanning, OCR, disk space, inexpensive, high capacity CD-ROM

Demonstrated need
Catalysts: ACM Council and SIG Governing Board
Qualitative change
 

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